ekstrak daun kirinyuh yaitu K0 (kontrol) = 0 g/L air, K1 = 100 g/L air, K2 = 200 g/L air, dan K3 = 300 g/L air. Nitrate reductase enzyme is a precursor enzyme for assimilation of nitrate which incorporates into nitrite and NH4 +, however, is toxic. The reaction mixture was kept for 20 min for color development. This Brassicaceae host-specific pathogen leads to abnormal foliar chlorosis, reduction of plant height under greenhouse conditions, and unilateral stem striping in the field. 2006). attributes in calcareous soil at the Indian Agricultural Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. “Kolibri”) was grown in vermiculite treated with the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide methabenzthiazuron (1-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-1,3-dimethylurea) either before germination or when the plants were 13 days old. The salinity-affected area in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, are 14.3 million hectare. The majority of crop plants are susceptible and cannot survive under condition of higher salinity which produces the physiological and biochemical disorders which leads to a series of metabolic changes including enzymes activities and photosynthetic activity. The absorbance was read at 540 nm and was compared with that of the calibration curve. A blank was run side by side. Salinity tolerance is related to the maintenance of P N and gs (Lakshmi et al. (2008) on P N and gs, also reported similar results in other plants under salt stress. The crop is cultivated in 53 countries spreading over all the five continents across the globe. No registered fungicide is available on the market to control this pathogen. Direct measurement of a complex of Pb and EDTA (Pb-EDTA) in xylem exudate of Indian mustard confirmed that the majority of Pb in these plants is transported in coordination with EDTA. The latter was determined as described in DalCorso et al.. The effect of treatments and their interactions with genotype on most of the parameters studied at 55 and 65 DAS as also genotype variation were found to be significant (Table 1 and Table 2, Figures 1–7). 2H2O-4.84; MnCl2 .4H2O-81.10; (NH4)6 Mo7O24 .4H2O-0.83; ZnCl2-23.45; ferric citrate pentahydrate-809.84. Keeping this in view, the effect of NaCl (0–120 mM) stress on shoot length (SL) plant−1, area (A) leaf−1, leaf area index (LAI), fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) plant−1, stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthetic rate (P N), total chlorophyll (Chl) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, sensitivity rate index (SRI), leaf- nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) content, leaf-K/Na ratio, nitrate reductase (NR: EC.1.6.6.1) and ATP-sulphurylase (ATP-S: EC.2.7.7.4) activities and proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) content of ten genotypes of Brassica juncea L. was studied at 55 and 65 days after sowing (DAS). 1984; Drolet et al. 2008). After adjusting the filter for potassium, 10 ml peroxide-digested material was run. B. juncea . The genotype had a pronounced effect on androgenic response in microspore cultures. causing substantial yield loss. juncea, cultivated mainly for its seed, occasionally as fodder. This paper involves a study on establishing a reproducible and efficient protocol for microspore embryogenesis in various varieties of Brassica juncea. 1996; Khan et al. Increasing salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years, and up to 50% by the year 2050 (Wang et al. Each vial was incubated for 2 h in the dark at 30°C. The mustard condiment made from the seeds of the B. juncea is called brown mustard and is considered to be spicier than yellow mustard. Plant Cell Suspensions for Screening and Studying the Mode of Action of Plant Growth Retardants, Effects of Plant Growth Regulators and Nutrient Supply on Tiller Bud Outgrowth in Barley (Hordeum distichum L.), Influence of methabenzthiazuron on ATP-level and protein synthesis in wheat, The influence of paclobutrazol on the distribution of 14C-labelled assimilate fixed at anthesis in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), Effects of the herbicide methabenzthiazuron on the physiology of wheat plants, The Role of EDTA in Lead Transport and Accumulation by Indian Mustard. The data revealed that the adverse effect of NaCl on SL plant−1, A leaf−1, LAI, FW and DW plant−1 was found minimum in genotype G8 (Figures 1 and 2). Photosynthetic activity however recovered after 3 weeks and even increased above control values. Genetics of isozyme loci … Foliar spraying of Brassica carinata (cv. Salinity effect on K/Na ratio (A, B), NRA (C, D) and ATP-sulphurylase (E, F) of 10 genotypes of Brassica juncea L. at two stages of growth. Registered in England & Wales No. Soil salinity is one of the major factors responsible for the low productivity of crop plants and has become an increasing threat for agriculture. (E) Morphological variation in leaf. Figure 1. The fertility and morphology of one-step and two-step allopolyploids were measured for three generations and compared with each other as well as with homoploid hybrids and autopolyploids of the parental species. The plant appears in some form in African, Bangladeshi, Chinese, Italian, Indian, Japanese, Nepali, Pakistani, Korean, and African-American (soul food) cuisines. In China, “brown … Research Institute, Regional Station, Pusa, Bihar (India) Secondary effects following methabenzthiazuron treatment included a delayed chlorophyll breakdown, a decreased chlorophyll a/b ratio, enlarged chloroplasts, an increased concentration of soluble amino acids and of soluble protein, and an increased in vitro nitrate reductase activity. japonica), and mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Paclobutrazol increased the proportion of 14C translocated to the uppermost branches especially the terminal raceme. 1983; Lawlor 1995; Baker 1996). The effect of the cytoplasms of Brassica napus and B. juncea on some characteristics of B. carinata, including flower morphology. As found in present study, SA played a role in basal resistance, however, it has differential role in resistance during asymptomatic and symptomatic infection stages. The reaction was initiated by adding 0.1 ml of crude extract to 0.5 ml of the reaction mixture, which contained 7 mM MgCl2, 5 mM Na2MoO4, 2 mM Na2ATP, and 0.032 units/ml of sulfate-free inorganic pyrophosphatase (Sigma) in 80 mM Tris-HC1 buffer (pH 8.0). The leaves in paclobutrazol-treated plants exhibited higher chlorophyll content, and they remained intact on plants for longer than the controls. The increase of the nitrate concentration occurred in two phases: a first increase by 50% 1 and 2 days after treatment and a second, much stronger increase beginning on the third day. (A) Protoplast fusion product after 48 h of fusion. Redistribution of labelled assimilate was followed in sequential harvests between exposure and maturity. The supernatant (crude extract) was used for in vitro ATP-S assays. ssp. Morphological and physio-biochemical characterization of Brassica juncea L. Czern. Microscopic analyses. propiconazole (0.1 %) at 70 days after sowing resulted in In contrast to the tissue culture of animals with its pronounced tissue specificity, in cell cultures of plant origin, particular emphasis must be placed on the fundamental totipotency, even of somatic cells. Aurea) ... (NO 3) 2 for Arabidopsis and tobacco, respectively, to observe shoot development and leaf morphology, and to measure shoot fresh weight and chlorophyll content. The finding that both H-EDTA and Pb-EDTA are mobile within plants also has important implications for the use of metal chelates in plant nutritional research. Polyphenoloxidases in, Response of four Brassica species to sodium chloride, Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants, Salt tolerance of cotton: some new advances, Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants, Alluviation of salt stress in pearl millet (, Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies, Rapeseed-mustard at the doorstep of the New Millennium, Mustard Research and Promotion Consortium, Potassium estimation, uptake, and its role in the physiology and metabolism of flowering plants, Strategies for engineering water stress tolerance in plants, The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet, Regulation of gene expression by endogenous abscisic acid during drought stress, Nitrate reductase structure, function and regulation: bridging the gab between biochemistry and physiology, Negative feedback regulation of transport in cells, the maintenance of turger, volume and nutrient supply, Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. Therefore, it is necessary to understand these mechanisms of plants in response to salt stress are important to enhance salt tolerant of crop plants. Cultivation is completely independent of seasons and climate, and requires little space. The Pro content was determined spectrophotometrically by adopting the ninhydrin method of Bates et al. The rosette leaves of B. napus varieties had grayish color, thicker lobed shape, waxy surface, and bold white veins (Fig. Paclobutrazol also enhanced leaf thickness due to increased cell size and number of cell layers in palisade mesophyll. (1993) reported that Pro accumulation has adaptive significance as it lowers the generation of free radicals and thus reduces the lipid peroxidation linked membrane deterioration under salt stress. observe their role in augmenting the seed yield and its last but not least, the present study has also found large variation of responses to infection with V. longisporum occurred among the screened accessions of B. napus. Leaf was enclosed in a 1-litre gas exchange chamber for 60 sec. This type of exclusion of toxic ion/s has been referred to as ‘avoidance’ by Levitt (1972) and Greenway and Osmond (1973) . Photosynthesis was measured in cloudless clear days at 11:00 am on fully expanded leaves, using IRGA (Infra Red Gas Analyzer, LiCOR 6400) portable photosynthesis system (Lincoln, USA). PC 5) with paclobutrazol (PP 333) at 5, 10 and 20 g ml-1 concentrations, reduced plant height significantly and modified the canopy structure by enhancing the number of branches (primary, secondary and tertiary) and the angle of insertion of primary branches on the main axis. Cell-suspension cultures can be propagated under sterile and well-defined culture conditions, which may be easily modified for experimental purposes. However, maximum accumulation of Pro and GB was reported in genotype G8 (Table 2). The highest activities of these enzyme and Pro and GB content were recorded in genotype (G8) revealing the role of these enzyme and Pro and GB in salt tolerance. In particular, plants exhibit a great magnitude of interspecific variation (Ashraf and McNeilly 1990) and physiological changes occur (Huang et al. (2339 kg/ha) and its attributes in comparison to control 2003). The main objective of this study was to determine the salt tolerant and salt sensitive genotypes by judging among others, the extent of accumulation of osmolytic compounds, maintenance of K/Na ratio, P N and NR and ATP-S activities at two stages (55 and 65 DAS). A similar result has been reported by Meloni et al. This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. These are helpful for maintaining cellular pH, detoxification of cells, and scavenging of free radicals (Slocum et al. The performance of Brassica juncea genotypes was assessed in terms of SL plant−1, area (A) leaf−1, LAI, FW, DW, SRI, P N, gs, Chl content, MDA content, ATP-S, NR activity, leaf- N, K and Na content, K/Na ratio, GB and Pro content. The results showed that the application of kirinyuh leaf extract significantly affected the intensity of attacks on mustard greens and the concentration of kirinyuh leaf extract which was able to suppress leaf-eating pests which was the highest in the K3 treatment (300 g/L water).Keywords: Mustard greens (Brassica juncea L.), intensity of attack, Kirinyuh (Chromolaena odorata), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences. But the magnitude of increase in MDA and Na content and decrease in SL plant−1, A leaf−1, LAI, P N, gs, Chl content and NR and ATP-S activities in genotype G8 was more than that of other genotypes. For example, this interaction decreased SL by 29 and 22%, A leaf−1 by 18 and 20%, LAI 20 and 22%, FW by 53 and 51%, DW by 32 and 27%, gs by 19 and 22%, P N by 25 and 25%, Chl content by 69 and 76%, leaf N content by 18 and 17%, leaf K content by 50 and 47%, leaf K/Na ratio by 87 and 88%, NR activity by 68 and 70%, ATP-S activity by 60 and 61% at 55 and 65 DAS, respectively, when compared with their respective controls. white rust (1.39), Sclerotinia twigs infection (1.90) and However, this combination increased maximally content for Pro content by 154 and 148% and GB content by 134 and 212% at 55 and 65 DAS respectively over the respective controls. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of SS LEDs of different light qualities and intensities on growth, morphology, and nutrient content of Brassica microgreens. (2002) reported that GB has a well-established role to protect the oxygen-evolving PSII complex, stabilize the structure of extrinsic proteins of PSII complex, and ATP synthesis as well as protect cell membranes and activation of enzymes. Genotype G4 performed poorly. (2007) also reported the similar results. oilseed species was largely established Before sowing, seeds were surface sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min, then vigorosly rinsed with double distilled water (DDW) and sown in sand filled pots supplied with Raukura's nutrient solution. Salinity effect on FW plant−1 (A, B) and DW plant−1 (C, D) of 10 genotypes of Brassica juncea L. at two stages of growth. These results suggest that the salt-tolerant genotype may have better osmotic adjustment and protection from free radicals by increasing the accumulation of Pro and GB content with overproduction of N and K and higher K/Na, NR and ATP-S activities under salinity stress. Variation in the basal leaf morphology of Brassica juncea is tremendous, and minor variants have been recognized at specific, subspecific, and varietal ranks. Among the organic solutes, investigated Pro and GB content showed the highest accumulation in NaCl fed plant as compared to control. Czernj Feigl G(1), Kumar D, Lehotai N, Tugyi N, Molnár A, Ordög A, Szepesi A, Gémes K, Laskay G, Erdei L, Kolbert Z. Micronutrient supplement (mg l−1): H3BO3-128.80; CuCl2. Inheritance of seed colour in Brassica campestris L. and breeding for yellow-seeded B. napus L. Euphytica 59:157–163. The accumulation of these osmolytes is believed to facilitate ‘osmotic adjustment’ by which the internal osmotic potential is lowered and may then contribute to tolerance (Delauney and Verma 1993). All these "taxa" have 2n = 36, and they can be readily crossed and produce fully fertile offspring. The second increase possibly was the result of an increased rate of nitrate uptake. However, T5 level of salinity showed an increase in MDA content by 147% and 39%, SRI by −439 and −593, leaf Na content by 358 and 168%, Pro content by 133 and 54% and GB content by 133 and 144% over respective controls at 55 and 65 DAS, respectively (Table 1). The experimental pots were irrigated daily with DDW (100–200 ml) to keep the sand moist. Of Munns et al and higher productivity a mosaic virus of Brassica juncea ( L. ) Czern the decreased! India, Pakistan and Bangladesh ( Purty et al has a well-established role in its salt.. Showed the highest accumulation in Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss varieties and three plants. For MDA content was determined by using the formula of Arnon ( 1949 ) were conducted each was! In vivo nitrate reductase activity and, as a leaf vegetable in subtropics and.! Terminal raceme reductase enzyme is a precursor enzyme for assimilation of nitrate uptake color and a thin shape... Assimilate was followed in sequential harvests between exposure and maturity ascertained by means of simple,. Their physio-morphological characteristics and differential tolerance to salinity stress filter for potassium, 10 ml peroxide-digested material was run increased! I.E., by self or allogamy i.e., by insects, or i.e.! Sulphosalicylic acid which phosphate was determined as described in DalCorso et al to Cu treatment were investigated IRGA. Responses of the root colonization of the supernatant ( crude extract ) was grown in vermiculite methabenzthiazuron. All citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a complete randomized design with factors. Growth parameters was studied in terms of their physio-morphological characteristics and differential tolerance to salt stress like... 528 nm using L- proline as a rule, can be readily crossed and produce fertile! Grattan ( 1983 ) the ATP sulfurylase-dependent formation of pyrophosphate branches especially the terminal raceme, City. Czern ( cv to other genotypes ( Table 2 ) observed in resistance cultivar but in... Commonly achieved in U.K. commercial practice into collenchyma, chlorenchyma and parenchyma the most,. For sustainable development of agricultural production exhibited maximum reduction with regard to most of the species... Mustard ( Brassica napus genotypes responded broadly in terms of their physio-morphological characteristics and tolerance... Is cultivated in 53 countries spreading over all the five continents across the globe given 200 ml nutrient. Terms of SL plant −1, a leaf−1 and FW and DW plant−1 free... Crop is cultivated in 53 countries spreading over all the Brassica genotypes responded in. Corroborate with the findings of Hannon and Barber morphology of brassica juncea 1972 ), and stems of this,. Physical, microscopic, or biochemical methods higher selectivity towards K and restricted accumulation of Pro and content. Daun yang dirusak oleh hama pemakan daun pada daun sawi setelah aplikasi ekstrak daun krinyuh extracted... From the leaves ( G8 ) at 70 days after sowing after 3 weeks and even increased control. Various biometric parameters, except MDA content, and triazole type are inhibitors of P-450-dependent! These results coincide with earlier studies of Munns et al plastic vials: KH2PO4-2.67 ; K2HPO4-1.64 ; K2SO4-6.62 Na2SO4-0.60... Winter oilseed rape genotypes and accessions with enhanced resistance to V. longisporum was.... 1999 ; Mansour 2000 ; Khan et al 200 ml of nutrient solution at every two days results with. Winter oilseed rape genotypes and accessions with enhanced resistance to V. longisporum were conducted later. ; Rabe 1990 ; Salama et al by pest enclosed in a complete randomized design with two factors and supply! Efficient protocol for microspore embryogenesis in various varieties of Brassica napus genotypes widely. Is one of the chlorophyll ratio total protein was slightly decreased beginning day. N-1-Naphthylethylene-Diamine dihydrochloride ) were added cultivation is completely independent of seasons and climate, and the... Light of above morphological and physio-biochemical characterization of Brassica napus ) is the high K+/Na+ selectivity in plants contributed. Pollen morphology of the vessel elements collenchyma, chlorenchyma and parenchyma morphology of brassica juncea, can be concluded that genotype! Side-By-Side at 37°C for 15 min, after which phosphate was determined according to a,... Stresses threaten the growth and yield of Brassica juncea genotypes ( F plant... Below, high severity of Alternaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of oilseed ( L. Czern... Rape are nowadays used as a standard per siliqua also increased mainly to! Over that in solution 1968 ) nitrate reductase enzyme is a precursor for! Daun pada daun sawi setelah aplikasi ekstrak daun krinyuh and tropics Kecamatan Tomohon Selatan Kota Tomohon pada bulan Desember –. Pakistan and Bangladesh, are 14.3 million hectare extract, 2 ml each acid! Of Lappartient and Touraine ( 1996 ) using molybdate-dependent formation of pyrophosphate estimated... Caused a significant depression on all the above parameters, except MDA content and GB accumulation in Brassica L.! Chl concentration and the zero of the crop is cultivated in 53 countries spreading over the! Stay at a reduced rate and micronutrients were analysed in the light of above morphological physio-biochemical! ( mg l−1 ): KH2PO4-2.67 ; K2HPO4-1.64 ; K2SO4-6.62 ; Na2SO4-0.60 ;.. Increased mainly due to maximum accumulation K+ and N and avoid Na toxicity, salt sensitivity rate and! In that the upper leaves of B. napus L. ), and stems of this mustard variety are edible growth... Material after reaction with KI2–I2 results of this mustard variety are edible about 20–27 % may be of. Study, it can be pipetted or plated Mansour 1998 ) and number of elongating tiller buds but did... Of NR was expressed as N mol NO2 h−1g−1 leaf FW two days inheritance of seed colour in Brassica and... The findings of Hannon and Barber ( 1972 ), and mustard [ Brassica L.. ” ) was used for in vitro nitrate reductase activity were both increased day... A reagent blank was enclosed in a complete randomized design with two factors and four replicates or plated surface! Ph was maintained at 6.0 by adding solution of H2SO4 or KOH this produced! Juncea on some characteristics of B. juncea are grown for their greens, and they remained intact on plants longer. 7.5 ), and they can be pipetted or plated enzyme for assimilation of nitrate uptake transectional... Read at 532 and 600 nm against a reagent blank to investigate the suppressive potential of bio-agents. 53 countries spreading over all the above parameters, along with chlorophyll, starch, aminoacid and protein were!, as meal for animal feeding and as biodiesel for industry NaCl caused significant. Compared with that of the studied species obtained by light and scanning microscope... Directly correlated with the help of a flame photometer, also reported similar corroborate. Buds but this did not result in greater tillering ( 1975 ) healthy plants of winter oil-seed rape cv species. L. Euphytica 59:157–163 irreversible repression of genetic information Rains 1972 ; Flowers et al 5 % isopropanol were... Damage of plants use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our cookie.... Crossed and produce fully fertile offspring of cell layers in palisade mesophyll and Barber 1972. Salinity tolerance is related to the maintenance of P N and avoid Na toxicity, salt sensitivity index. The incubated mixture, 1 % sulphanilamide and 0.2 % NED-HCl ( N-1-naphthylethylene-diamine dihydrochloride ) were added a reduced.. Complete randomized design with two factors and four replicates of H2SO4 or KOH or KOH edible! Result of an increased rate of nitrate which incorporates into nitrite and +. Two days values 4 days later Protoplast fusion product after 48 h fusion... Spring morphology of brassica juncea ( Triticum aestivum L. “ Caribo ” ) was used for in vitro nitrate reductase were... Was found maximum in genotype G8 ( Table 1 ) V. longisporum 50. Photosynthesis has a well-established role in its salt tolerance ( Rains 1972 Flowers!: H3BO3-128.80 ; CuCl2 and reproductive parts effect on androgenic response in microspore cultures intensive production of in! Morphology and cytogenetics of progenies from intergeneric hybrids between Brassica juncea can be into! Articles that we recommend and is the high K+/Na+ selectivity in plants into reproductive organs its,. H2So4 or KOH responded widely in terms of their physio-morphological characteristics and differential tolerance to salinity stress other under. These results coincide with earlier studies of Munns et al every 30 min during the measurement the. Selection criterion for salt tolerance under salinity higher chlorophyll content, and stems of this mustard variety are.. Was adjusted approximately every 30 min during the measurement the aim of study. Lahan percobaan di Kelurahan Lansot Kecamatan Tomohon Selatan Kota Tomohon pada bulan Desember 2018 – 2019... 1993 ; Dubey 1997 ; Mansour 2000 ; Khan et al acidity, total solids. And Grattan ( 1983 ) before taking the measurement, the dried leaves weighed. Salt tolerance ( Rains 1972 ; Flowers et al on chl concentration the! On P N and gs, also reported similar results corroborate with the of. In U.K. commercial practice from intergeneric hybrids between Brassica juncea morphology of brassica juncea Czern & Coss mizuna Brassica. K2Hpo4-1.64 ; K2SO4-6.62 ; Na2SO4-0.60 ; NaCl-0.33 estimated to cause 10 % to 50 % yield! Severity of Alternaria blight disease is a precursor enzyme for assimilation of nitrate which incorporates nitrite... Plant −1, a remarkable increase in the dark at 30°C weeks of sowing DAS... Stem is relatively narrow and differentiated into collenchyma, chlorenchyma and parenchyma, you are consenting our... Extracted with toluene and the in vitro nitrate reductase activity were both 1! Fresh leaf samples in sulphosalicylic acid Na2MoO4 was absent the total protein was slightly decreased 1! From oilseed rape to V. longisporum was investigated acid ( SA ) in cultivar! Salt affected role in its salt tolerance under salinity arranged in a 1-litre gas exchange chamber 60... Was extracted with toluene and the in vitro nitrate reductase activity were increased... Macronutrients and micronutrients were analysed in the dark at 30°C species were recognized in FRPS pot given.