"[140] For example, the play's Verona is situated on a tidal river and has a duke, and none of the characters have distinctly Italian names like in the later plays. Looney (1948 edition, New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce), pp. According to Daniel Wright, these combined passages confirm that Oxford was one of the concealed writers in the Elizabethan court. "A Question of Will. \"Oxford wrote the plays attributed to William Shakespeare\") was first proposed in 1920 by the wonderfully-named J. Thomas Looney. On Oxford's return from Europe in 1576, he encountered a cavalry division outside of Paris that was being led by a German duke, and his ship was hijacked by pirates who robbed him and left him stripped to his shirt, and who might have murdered him had not one of them recognised him. [128] Shapiro calls this a 'nightmare' for Oxfordians, implying a 'jumble sale scenario' for his literary remains long after his death. In spite of this, age and growing older are recurring themes in the Sonnets: ... vainly thinking that she thinks me young, Thou wilt restore to be my comfort still. Charlton Ogburn, Jr., was elected president of The Shakespeare Oxford Society in 1976 and kick-started the modern revival of the Oxfordian movement by seeking publicity through moot court trials, media debates, television, and later the Internet, including WorldHeritage, methods which became standard for Oxfordian and anti-Stratfordian promoters because of their success in recruiting members of the lay public. The Oxfordian theory of Shakespearean authorship proposes that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford (1550–1604), wrote the plays and poems traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon. [45][46], The exact dates of the composition of Shakespeare's plays are unknown. [63][64] This view was first expressed by Charles Wisner Barrell, who argued that De Vere "kept the place as a literary hideaway where he could carry on his creative work without the interference of his father-in-law, Burghley, and other distractions of Court and city life. The Shakespeare Fellowship, an organization originally dedicated to the discussion and promotion of ecumenical anti-Stratfordian views, but which later became devoted to promoting Oxford as the true Shakespeare. Cousins, A. D. (2011), "Shakespeare's Sonnets", in Cousins, A. Velz, John W. (2006), "Shakespeare and the Geneva Bible: The Circumstances", in Kozuka, Takashi; Mulryne, J.R., historical evidence for William Shakespeare, The Decades of the New Worlde Or West India, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, Derbyite theory of Shakespeare authorship, Marlovian theory of Shakespeare authorship, List of Shakespeare authorship candidates, WorldHeritage pages with incorrect protection templates, WorldHeritage articles needing factual verification from July 2013, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters, Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL, Oxfordian theory is central to the plot of, The Oxfordian theory, among others, is discussed in, Oxfordian theory is the key plot element in Scott Evans's 2010 mystery novel. [156] Though it is described as a new play by two witnesses in 1613, Oxfordians argue that this refers to the fact it was new on stage, having its first production in that year. They believe Oxford's 1604 death provides the explanation. They cite Sir Philip Sidney, none of whose poetry was published until after his premature death, as an example. [135], Joseph Sobran, in Alias Shakespeare, argued that in 1607 William Barksted, a minor poet and playwright, implies in his poem "Mirrha the Mother of Adonis" that Shakespeare was already deceased. The original principal alternative candidate was Francis Bacon, but by the beginning of the twentieth century other candidates, typically aristocrats, were put forward. Shall mount fair place when Apes are turned forth. In addition to the problem of Edward de Vere's 1604 death, supporters of the orthodox view dispute all contentions in favour of Oxford. Valiant and learn’d, and liberal as the sun, The Problem of Hamlet: A Solution. [15] Oxfordians also consider it significant that the nearest town to the parish of Hackney, where de Vere later lived and was buried, was also named Stratford.Ogburn 1984, p. 236 They also regard Dr. John Ward's 1662 statement that Shakespeare spent at a rate of £1,000 a year as a critical piece of evidence, because Oxford received an annuity from Queen Elizabeth I of exactly £1,000 a year. Jiménez, Ramon (2003), "Edmond Ironside, the English King: Edward de Vere's Anglo-Saxon History Play", Shakespeare Authorship 101 | Shakespeare Oxford Fellowship, Stratford Strikes Back: The Orthodox Rebuttal | Michael Prescott. (5 July 2001). Pendleton, Thomas A. For mainstream critics, the most compelling evidence against Oxford (besides the historical evidence for William Shakespeare) is his death in 1604, since the generally-accepted Chronology of Shakespeare's plays places the composition of about 10 of the plays after that date. In an opinion shared in some form or another by Harold Bloom,[56] and Peter Alexander,[57], early scholar Andrew Cairncross, stated that "It may be assumed, until a new case can be shown to the contrary, that Shakespeare's Hamlet and no other is the play mentioned by Nashe in 1589 and Henslowe in 1594. [152] In 1974, membership in the society stood at 80. [46][47], Mainstream critics further say that if William Shakespeare were a fraud instead of the true author, the number of people involved in suppressing this information would have made it highly unlikely to succeed. The earth can yield me but a common grave’ These include attempting to cast doubt on whether the Declaration travelled back to England with Gates, whether Gates travelled back to England early enough, whether the lowly Shakespeare would have had access to the lofty circles in which the Declaration was circulated, to understating the points of similarity between the Sea Venture wreck and the accounts of it, on the one hand, and the play on the other. Article Id: [184], Oxford's illicit congress with Anne Vavasour resulted in an intermittent series of street battles between the Knyvet clan, led by Anne's uncle, Sir Thomas Knyvet, and Oxford’s men. [80] For later plays such as Othello, Shakespeare probably used Lewes Lewknor's 1599 English translation of Gasparo Contarini's The Commonwealth and Government of Venice for some details about Venice's laws and customs. [71] And in the 1969 and 1977 Pelican/Viking editions of Shakespeare’s plays, Alfred Harbage showed the composition of Macbeth, Timon of Athens, Pericles, King Lear and Antony and Cleopatra — all traditionally regarded as "late plays" — likely did not occur after 1604. Please maintain high quality standards and, if possible, stick to GFDL -compatible images. [78][79] Oxfordians also note Shakespeare of Stratford's relatives and neighbors never mentioned he was famous or a writer, nor are there any indications his heirs demanded or received payments for his supposed investments in the theatre or for any of the more than 16 masterwork plays unpublished at the time of his death. [131] Bacon, Derby, Neville, and William Shakespeare[132] all lived well past the 1609 publication of the Sonnets. Farina notes the "idea of Will Shakespere (of Stratford) offering such assurance to the Earl of Southampton is truly a smiler. Writing that Meres was obsessed with numerology, the authors propose that the numbers should be symmetrical, and that careful readers are meant to infer that Meres knew two of the English poets (viz., Oxford and Shakespeare) to actually be one and the same. Fresh youth in sugred joy. [165], Another frequently-cited parallel involves Hamlet's revelation in Act IV that he was earlier taken captive by pirates. He says the name is a swipe "at Burghley's motto, Cor unum, via una, or 'one heart, one way.'" "Introduction". Based on Sonnets 81, 72, and others, Oxfordians assert that if the author expected his "name" to be "forgotten" and "buried", it would not have been the name that permanently adorned the published works themselves. so the best for comedy amongst us bee, Edward Earle of Oxenforde, Doctor Gager of Oxforde, Maister Rowley once a rare Scholar of learned Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, Maister Edwardes one of her Majesty's Chapel, eloquent and witty John Lilly, Lodge, Gascoyne, Greene,Shakespeare, Thomas Nash, Thomas Heywood, Anthony Munday our best plotter, Chapman, Porter, Wilson, Hathway, and Henry Chettle. He argued that the child was given the name William Hughes, who became an actor under the stage-name "William Shakespeare". The Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship holds that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, wrote the plays and poems traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Well may the Body die, but Fame dies never. Stratfordians disagree with this interpretation of Peacham, asserting that Peacham copied large parts of Puttenham's work but only used the names of those writers he considered "gentlemen", a title Peacham felt did not apply to actors. [69] In 1874, German literary historianKarl Elze dated both The Tempest and Henry VIII — traditionally labeled as Shakespeare’s last plays — to the years 1603–04. Or, a Plea for Documentary Discipline". A detailed comparative analysis shows the Declaration to have been the primary source from which the play was drawn. Oxfordians argue that at the time of the passage's composition (pre-1589), the writers referenced were not in print, and interpret Puttenham's passage (that the noblemen preferred to 'suppress' their work to avoid the discredit of appearing learned) to mean that they were 'concealed'. Asimov’s Guide to Shakespeare. The narrative poems and sonnets had been written by Oxford for his son. But thou wilt not, nor he will not be free, Shakespeare's name appears further down the same list. Oxfordians believe the title (Shake-Speares Sonnets) suggests a finality indicating that it was a completed body of work with no further sonnets expected, and consider the differences of opinion among Shakespearian scholars as to whether the Sonnets are fictional or autobiographical to be a serious problem facing orthodox scholars. Stephen May, a leading authority on Oxford's poetry, attributes sixteen poems definitely and four possibly to Oxford, noting that these are probably "only a good sampling" as "both Webbe (1586) and Puttenham (1589) rank him first among the courtier poets, an eminence he probably would not have been granted, despite his reputation as a patron, by virtue of a mere handful of lyrics". WHEBN0000022676 In a striking parallel, on Oxford's return from Europe across the, Shakespearean scholar David Haley notes that in order to have written, Oxfordian theory is central to the plot of, The Oxfordian theory, among others, is discussed in Jennifer Lee Carrell's 2007 thriller, Derbyite theory of Shakespearean authorship, Oxfordian theory of Shakespearean authorship. Looney declared that the late play The Tempest was not written by Oxford, and that others performed or published after Oxford's death were most probably left incomplete and finished by other writers, thus explaining the apparent idiosyncrasies of style found in the late Shakespeare plays. Though most literary scholars reject all alternative authorship candidates, including Oxford,[1][2] popular interest in the Oxfordian theory continues. [67], Oxfordians also believe that Rev. Hunter, G. K. (2006) [1959]. In pompe and prime of May, They further argue his list is of poets only and he did not include playwrights, neglecting for example Christopher Marlow. From whence his noblest family was deriv’d; (1994). [156] Ogburn's efforts secured Oxford the place as the most popular alternative candidate. To Anderson, Peck's description suggests that this conceit is "arguably an early draft of Twelfth Night."[130]. Sad sighes with great annoy. (Act 4, scene 1). Most notable among these, they say, are certain similar incidents found in Oxford's biography and Hamlet, and Henry IV, Part 1, which includes a well-known robbery scene with uncanny parallels to a real-life incident involving Oxford. Thou usurer that put'st forth all to use, Vaughan, Virginia Mason; Vaughan, Alden T. (1999), Shakespeare Authorship: "Dating The Tempest", by David Kathman, Bernews: Bermuda Debunks Film’s Conspiracy Theory. On these grounds the scholar Benjamin Griffin argues that the non-Shakespearian plays, the Famous Victories and True Tragedy, are the ones connected to Oxford, possibly written for Oxford's Men. Though Crinkley rejected Ogburn's thesis, calling it "less satisfactory than the unsatisfactory orthodoxy it challenges", he believed that one merit of the book lay in how it forces orthodox scholars to reexamine their concept of Shakespeare as author. Oxfordian Theory of Shakepeare authorship claims that Edward De Were, 17th Earl of wrote the plays and the poems that are believed to be written by William Shalespeare. [43]Mainstream scholar Scott McCrea argues that this interpretation only works because the previous lines of the poem have been left out. "Querulous Notes (2004)". Oxfordian theory Quick Reference A term for what has since the mid-20th century been the most visible strand in the Authorship Controversy, the claim that Shakespeare's works were in … [123] In an age when such actions were expected, Shakespeare also failed to memorialise the coronation of James I in 1604, the marriage of Princess Elizabeth in 1612, and the investiture of Prince Charles as the new Prince of Wales in 1613. Kathman (2), David. Nobody came down from London; there were no lamenting poems, no eulogies, no national tears —there was merely silence, and nothing more. Whose Venus and whose Lucrece (sweet and chaste) As early as 1576 Edward de Vere was writing about this subject in his poem Loss of Good Name,[2] which Professor Steven W. May described as "a defiant lyric without precedent in English Renaissance verse."[105]. [140] And John Michell, in Who Wrote Shakespeare, noted that "[a]gainst the Oxford theory are several references to Shakespeare, later than 1604, which imply that the author was then still alive". Charlton Ogburn, Jr. was elected president of The Shakespeare Oxford Society in 1976 and kick-started the modern revival of the Oxfordian movement by seeking publicity through moot court trials, media debates, television, and later the Internet, including Wikipedia, methods which became standard policy for Oxfordian and anti-Stratfordian promoters because of their success in recruiting members of the lay public. In his later years, Oxford described himself as "lame". The word Ape means pretender or mimic, and Oxfordians maintain the writer whose silent name is bound by one letter is Edward de VerE,[42] although Marston calls the passage an example of "hotchpodge giberdige" written by bad poets, and nowhere does Marston mention Oxford explicitly as a poet, bad or otherwise. He is a man with faults, but stamped with reality and truth; honest even in his errors, making no pretence of being better than he was, and recalling frequently to our minds the lines in one of Shakespeare's sonnets:", I am that I am, and they that level The poet who wrote King Lear was at some time also capable of writing Titus Andronicus." The Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship holds that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, wrote the plays and poems traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles. [177] Looney also notes that in Richard III, when the future Henry VII appears, the same Earl of Oxford is "by his side; and it is Oxford who, as premier nobleman, replies first to the king's address to his followers". Pendleton, Thomas A. OxfraudWhen the Shakespeare Authorship page began in 1996, it was the only site on the Internet dedicated to countering claims that someone other than William Shakespeare wrote the lion's share of the works professional literary historians have always assigned to Shakespeare. Oxford was thus the half-brother of his own son by the queen. [8] Oxfordians, however, reject the apparent historical record as falsified to protect the identity of the real author, and interpret the plays and poems as autobiographical. May, Steven W. (1980b). The convergence of documentary evidence of the type used by academics for authorial attribution—title pages, testimony by other contemporary poets and historians, and official records—sufficiently establishes Shakespeare of Stratford's authorship for the overwhelming majority of Shakespeare scholars and literary historians,[7] and no evidence links Oxford to Shakespeare's works. [113] Marston expert Arnold Davenport believes that Mutius is the bishop-poet Joseph Hall and that Marston is criticising Hall's satires. Oxford had borrowed the name from a third Shakespeare, the man of that name from Stratford-upon-Avon, who was a law student at the time, but who was never an actor or a writer.[163]. In lieu of any evidence of the type commonly used for authorship attribution, Oxfordians discard the methods used by historians and employ other types of arguments to make their case, the most common being supposed parallels between Oxford's life and Shakespeare's works. Paul Streitz's Oxford: Son of Queen Elizabeth I (2001) advances a variation on the theory: that Oxford himself was the illegitimate son of Queen Elizabeth by her stepfather, Thomas Seymour. In this case, “Oxford” refers to his title as the 17th Earl of Oxford. [154] He portrayed academic scholars as self-interested members of an "entrenched authority" that aimed to "outlaw and silence dissent in a supposedly free society", and proposed to counter their influence by portraying Oxford as a candidate on equal footing with Shakespeare. They argue that satirist John Marston's Scourge of Villanie (1598) contains further cryptic allusions to Oxford: .......Far fly thy fame, Non-Oxfordian writers do not see any evidence of partiality for the de Vere family in the plays. [7] Scholars also note that interpreting the plays and poems as autobiographical, and then using them to construct a hypothetical author, is a method most literary specialists consider unreliable as far as attributive value.[8]. [145], Shakespearian scholar David Haley asserts that if Edward de Vere had written Coriolanus, he "must have foreseen the Midland Revolt grain riots [of 1607] reported in Coriolanus", possible topical allusions in the play that most Shakespearians accept.[146]. Joseph Sobran questions why Shakespeare (who lived until 1616) failed to publish a corrected and authorised edition if they are fiction, as well as why they fail to match Shakespeare's life story if they are autobiographic. "Early Courtier Verse: Oxford, Dyer, and Gascoigne". ", The composition date of Hamlet has been frequently disputed. Bénézet also used two lines from Greene that he thought were Oxford's, while succeeding Oxfordians, including Charles Wisner Barrell, have also misattributed poems to Oxford. Although in me each part will be forgotten. [42] One major evidential objection to the Oxfordian theory is Edward de Vere's 1604 death, after which a number of Shakespeare's plays are generally believed to have been written. [17] They also portrayed middle and lower-class people negatively, while Shakespearian heroes were typically aristocratic. In fact, many of Shakespeare s… …   Wikipedia, Prince Tudor theory — Prince Tudor Part IThe Prince Tudor theory of Shakespeare Authorship advances the belief that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, and Queen Elizabeth I, had a child who was raised as Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. Ligon,"Francis Meres and the Earl of Oxford". http://www.authorshipstudies.org/articles/devere.pdf, Hannas, Andrew. "A Few Curiosities Regarding Edward de Vere and the Writer Who Called Himself Shakespeare.". Lessons from Content Marketing World 2020; Oct. 28, 2020. [99] Other Oxfordians say that de Vere's extant work is that of a young man and should be considered juvenilia,[100][101] while May believes that all the evidence dates his surviving work to his early 20s and later.[102]. [83] He also believes that Shakespeare became more proficient in reading the language as set out in Florio’s manuals, as evidenced by his increasing use of Florio and other Italian sources for writing the plays.[84]. The Dark Lady is believed by some Oxfordians to be Anne Vavasour, Oxford's mistress who bore him a son out of wedlock. [66] Mainstream scholar Irvin Matus demonstrated that Oxford sold the Bilton house in 1580, having previously rented it out, making it unlikely that Ben Jonson's 1623 poem would identify Oxford by referring to a property he once owned, but never lived in, and sold 43 years earlier. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization. The most compelling evidence against the Oxfordian Theory is de Vere's death in 1604, since the generally accepted chronology of Shakespeare's plays places the composition of approximately twelve of the plays after that date. He cites, by contrast, "testimony of contemporary writers, court records and much else" supporting Shakespeare's authorship. ", http://www.cmc.edu/pages/faculty/welliott/UTConference/Oxford_by_Numbers.pdf, http://books.google.com/books?id=W7HEMEsGiVUC, http://shakespeareauthorship.com/harpers.html, http://shakespeareauthorship.com/ox2.html, http://shakespeareauthorship.com/whynot.html, http://www.shakespearefellowship.org/etexts/si/00.htm, "Tudor Aristocrats and the Mythical "Stigma of Print"", http://shakespeareauthorship.com/stigma.html, http://books.google.com/books?id=c95vhdF1qiYC, http://books.google.com/books?id=WcfiqlOjEKoC, "Calling on Shakespeare Biographers! Allen developed the theory in his 1934 book Anne Cecil, Elizabeth & Oxford. In Hunter, G. K. Kathman, David (31 March 1999). Falk, Doris V. , Proverbs and the Polonius Destiny, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. [135], Stratfordians also stress that any supposedly special knowledge of the aristocracy appearing in the plays can be more easily explained by Shakespeare of Stratford's life-time of performances before nobility and royalty,[136][137] and possibly, as Gibson theorizes, "by visits to his patron's house, as Marlowe visited Walsingham. Jason Lawrence believes that Shakespeare’s Italian dialogue in the play derives "almost entirely" from Florio’s First Fruits(1578). [72] The author of The Merchant of Venice, Looney believed, "knew Italy first hand and was touched with the life and spirit of the country". Essex No!". While there is no documentary evidence connecting Oxford (or any authorial candidate) to the plays of Shakespeare,[9] Oxfordian researchers, including Mark Anderson and Charlton Ogburn believe the connection is provided by considerable circumstantial evidence inferred from Oxford's connections to the Elizabethan theatre and poetry scene; the participation of his family in the printing and publication of the First Folio; his relationship with the Earl of Southampton (believed by most Shakespeare scholars to have been Shakespeare's patron); as well as a number of specific incidents and circumstances of Oxford's life that Oxfordians believe are depicted in the plays themselves. Most scholars refer to this lost early play as the Ur-Hamlet; the earliest reference is in 1589. Which eyes not yet created shall o’ver-read, Thomas Middleton used it five times and Shakespeare and James Shirley used it four times. hath purchased it, Cypress thy brow will fit. May, Steven W. (2007). Shakespeare of Stratford had a petty "acquisitive disposition", he said, while the plays made heroes of free-spending figures. They say that this inferred profile fits the biography of the Earl of Oxford better than the documented biography of William Shakespeare. ", In Act IV, Hamlet describes himself as "set naked" in "the kingdom" and later reveals he was taken captive by pirates. Arguing that the themes fitted de Vere's known interests, he proceeded to link specific themes to passages in Shakespeare. Detailed study of the play from an Oxfordian point of view dates from Eva Turner Clark's 1933 study,[62] which sought to identify a number of characters in the play with various historical prototypes, among them Henry, King of Navarre (Ferdinand, King of Navarre), Marechal di Biron (Biron), Henri I d'Orléans, duc de Longueville, Governor of Picardie (Longaville), and Duc du Maine (Dumain). This perception was underlined by enemies who accused him of every imaginable offense and perversion, charges he was apparently unable to rebut. The Truth Behind Shakespeare's Monument at Stratford-upon-Avon, by David Roper David Roper, who is English, has spent some years in detailed research into this issue; he may well emerge as one of the best Oxfordian thinkers. [40] Several other contemporary authors refer to Oxford as an openly acknowledged poet, and Puttenham himself quotes one of Oxford's verses elsewhere in the book, referring to him by name as the author:[41]. [35]. The Oxfordian theory of authorship suggests that the plays attributed to William Shakespeare were actually written by Edward De Vere, the Earl of Oxford. Price explains that while he had a well documented habit of going to court over relatively small sums, he never sued any of the publishers pirating his plays and sonnets, or took any legal action regarding their practice of attaching his name to the inferior output of others. "[109], ...Or you survive, when I in earth am rotten; [157], Although Shakespearean experts disparaged Ogburn's methodology and his conclusions, one reviewer, Richmond Crinkley, the Folger Shakespeare Library's former director of educational programs, acknowledged the appeal of Ogburn's approach, writing that the doubts over Shakespeare, "arising early and growing rapidly", have a "simple, direct plausibility", and the dismissive attitude of established scholars only worked to encourage such doubts. He says that his style is so distinctive and unchanging that 'every word doth almost tell my name,' implying that his name is otherwise concealed – at a time when he is publishing long poems under the name William Shakespeare. Shakespeare of Stratford was born in 1564. Though most literary scholars reject all alternative authorship candidates, including Oxford, popular interest in the Oxfordian theory continues. Looney also introduced the argument that the reference to the "ever-living poet" in the 1609 dedication to Shakespeare's sonnets implied that the author was dead at the time of publication.[19]. Narrative poems and Sonnets had been published, succeeded by R. H. case ( 1909-1944 ) first series was under... ) name 1920s, oxfordian theory of shakespeare authorship last Fair Youth sonnet was not considered old terms of and... This site, you agree with this as portraying Oxford 's ancestors Shakespeare. 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Alternative Shakespeare authorship theory some works earlier and suggest that unfinished works were completed by other playwrights and musicians ''... Own son by the queen had children by the wonderfully-named J. Thomas,. Hamlet-Like play was drawn quarter of the Arden Shakespeare was William Shakespeare '',! Detailed descriptions of Italian life 's 1604 death provides the explanation this seems to that!