An immense amount of writing sympathetic to the Greeks appeared in the newspapers and reviews, but suggestions that practical help should be sent met with little response. Greek Independence Day, national holiday celebrated annually in Greece on March 25, commemorating the start of the War of Greek Independence in 1821. The Prussian Government had been prepared to tolerate philhellenism as long as it was mainly a literary theme or a subject for philosophical debate. When all allowance is made for the distortion of the news, the political situation in Europe, and other favourable factors, it remains an astonishing phenomenon. When a pamphlet went into a second edition or was translated I have counted these as if they were new works. Could any sensitive and grateful man – especially the lover of letters and of the arts who owes to this country his most noble pleasures and sweetest inspiration – withhold his pity for the misfortunes that heap on them. The final chorus is a paean for the longed-for regeneration: The world’s great age begins anew, The local Greek population, whether klephts or peasantry, watched the Regiment Baleste with incomprehension. In the absence of real knowledge about the way of life, traditions, customs, and ideas of the Modern Greeks, the Europeans relied on their prejudices. It was a European movement, springing up spontaneously in every society where European civilization was valued. The treaty granted the Allies the right to occupy forts controlling the Straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus; and the right to occupy "in case of disorder" any territory in case of a threat to security. Their most prized personal possessions were daggers and firearms decorated, if they could afford it, with precious metal and jewels. The Ottomans had once struck fear into the Christian nations of Europe, but a lack of technological innovation an… They invariably fired from the hip and turned their back to the enemy as they pulled the trigger. Alexander Ypsilantis was elected as the head of the Filiki Eteria in April 1820 and took upon himself the task of planning the insurrection. In the United States, too, the philhellenic movement made a strong start in 1821. For generations his family had been klephts in the Morea and several of his close relatives had been killed or tortured by the Turks. Then Hypsilantes sent one of his officers, who had come with him from Trieste, to conclude a capitulation. Some Greeks enjoyed a privileged position in the Ottoman state, and Ottoman Turks had always afforded a specific class of Greeks a degree of power. Nevertheless, the figures do seem to illustrate a few points about the state of public opinion. pp. Panagiotis Zographos illustrates under the guindance of General Makriyannis the battles of Alamana (left) and Acropolis (right) (from his Scenes from the Greek War of Independence). The first symbolic act of both sides when they took possession of a mosque or a church was to ride in on their horses and foul the places which their enemies regarded as most holy. International recognition of Greek independence came But only a few hundred pounds was collected and the committee was soon disbanded after a consignment of arms had been sent.[22]. The fight for Religion, Life and Freedom calls us to arms! Only the Bey and his harem were saved – as was usual with important prisoners, since there was a hope of ransom – but he was tortured mercilessly (although ineffectually) to make him reveal where the treasure was hidden. In Leipzig Krug issued a second pamphlet declaring that to fight for the Greeks would be to obey the first commandment. By the time the survivors reached the shore all control was lost, and when someone shouted a false alarm that Turkish soldiers from Nauplia were coming, almost all the prisoners, about 1,500 in all, were killed. In fact, … The armed bands of Colocotrones and the other captains burst into the fortress and plundered all they could find, killing any Turk they met.
From the autumn of 1821 young men from every corner of Europe, inspired by the rhetoric of professors and churchmen, packed their bags and set out for Marseilles, determined to play their part in the holy war for the regeneration of Greece. Then, victorious and crowned with glory, blessed by our Greek brothers and all Christendom and with the glorious knowledge that we have broken the chains of slavery of millions of our brothers, we shall see our German Fatherland again. By the time the news reached Western Europe the Turkish loss was put at 1,200. Prisoners who were suspected of having concealed their money were tortured. The Greeks were unable to maintain a continuous blockade and were often scattered by sorties of Turkish cavalry. With experience and good will the advocates of both methods could have grown to understand the advantages and disadvantages which both involved and planned their strategy accordingly. A Turkish couple, too starved and exhausted to carry their child any further, tried to hand it to a Greek. In France the interest was intense. The students of Germany, conscious of having played a leading part in the expulsion of the French, had made themselves into an important political force on the return of peace. By August 1821 the small town of Monemvasia was at its last extremity. There were age-old disputes between neighbouring communities. Colocotrones had the biggest contingent and there were numerous captains with smaller bands. The Greeks, however, offered a convention whereby they would be granted a secure passage to Africa. Many Greeks moved from master to master in accordance with their success. Hypsilantes’ own treasury was by now running very low and he was having difficulty even in maintaining the Regiment. There were only about twenty Europeans present manning the artillery. Theodoridis, Georgios K. "A Modern State". Even in Prussia itself, at Berlin, Professor Zeune started a collection. The Americans, confidently secure, even smug, in their own constitutional liberty could not conceal a feeling of superiority towards the unhappier political systems of the European nations. The press, enjoying a precarious freedom, was split. Individuals with experience of fighting should go to Greece with the express or tacit permission of their governments and should there join the ranks of those fighting. Dr. Lemprière, the author of a dictionary of classical antiquities, began to campaign in the autumn of 1821 for a subscription to be raised to help the Greeks. He quoted with approbation Lord Bacon’s opinion that whereas no nations are wholly alien one to another, there are some races whom it is a human duty to ’suppress’ since they ’have utterly degenerated from the laws of nature’ and ’have in their very body and frame of estate a monstrosity…, they are common enemies of mankind… disgraces and reproaches to human nature’.[26]. Lithograph mocking the new restrictions on the press and free expression imposed by the Carlsbad Decrees, 1829 / Wikimedia Commons. Philadelphia and the Greek War for Independence, 1821-1828 IN THE SPRING OF 1821, after nearly four hundred years of Turkish rule, the Greeks of the Morea (Peloponessus) rose in rebellion. But the forces of evil are struck with terror when they see ’The panther, Freedom, fled to her old cover’. Hypsilantes therefore decided to summon the Regiment and the numerous European volunteers who were congregating at Calamata and elsewhere. At Marseilles, volunteers on their way to Greece with the connivance of the French authorities could see frigates being built in the shipyards for the Egyptians. Portrait of Johann Gottfried Schweighäuser, professor of Greek literature, Strasbourg, 1821 / Wikimedia Commons. The remaining Turks, trusting in Hypsilantes and his European code of honour agreed to surrender on condition that they would be taken in neutral vessels to Asia Minor. From Frankfurt it was reported how the priests were inveigling women into the movement and preaching a crusade from the pulpit. 73–102. Their version of Christianity allowed them to regard all Moslems, men, women, and children, as abhorrent to God and deserving of total extirpation. Dania calculated that the Turks would be so terrified by the sudden unexpected appearance of a regiment of European troops in close order that they would be unable to resist. He was able to make use of this knowledge while remaining all his life a Greek klepht. And since it was clear that the Government was not prepared to do anything to help, it was left to private initiative to make a contribution. The cause of the Greeks was a subject which stirred the feelings of many men who never attempted another poem in their lives. It is more likely that the same pattern would have occurred as was seen at the surrender of Acrocorinth a few weeks later. By August, in several of the smaller German states the call had been made. 8 Gordon who saw the aftermath dared not describe the horrors in his history (i, p. 245). Whereas Tripolitsa was a sprawling town on an inland plain surrounded with a single low wall, Nauplia was strategically situated on the coast, still on occasion being supplied by sea, and protected by a series of fortifications that are among the wonders of Venetian military architecture. 11 Wilhelm Boldemann from Grabow in Mecklenburg. Some of the leaders who had served with the French and British armies had seen how small bodies of well trained and disciplined troops could cut their way through local troops many times their number; they had also seen the effects of European artillery both in the field and in storming defended positions. 18 Translated from Constitutionnel, 26 July 1821, quoted by Dimopoulos, p. 60. Only Marseilles, of all the ports of southern Europe, remained open owing to the ambivalent attitude of the French Government. Colonial Office Records 136/1085 reproduced as an Appendix to Humphreys, First Journal. At the time of Demetrius Hypsilantes’ arrival, Southern Greece was a patchwork of virtually independent communities, across which bands of armed men moved at will. Dania, a Piedmontese revolutionary in exile who had been a cavalry officer, drew up a scheme to try to restore the situation. Thirty pamphlets appeared in France during the first two years of the war. Add new page. Looking at the topography of the place one marvels at the daring of the plan and doubts whether it could ever have been carried out. Prussian Crown Prince Frederick William III / Preußen-Museum Minden, Germany. They disliked their Western manners and Western clothes and the fact that so many of them were more at home speaking French, German, or Italian than Greek. They were even unable to prevent some of their number from selling provisions to the Turks. Krug’s pamphlet was only the first of many professorial pronouncements all over Germany. The Scottish historian and philhellene Thomas Gordon took part in the revolutionary struggle and later wrote the first histories of the Greek revolutio… The one balanced pamphleteer of the Greek Revolution, Sheridan, included in his list of causes of the relative indifference of the British towards the Greeks at this time ’the language of their partisans’. In Austria, Russia, and Italy the governments were even more authoritarian than elsewhere in Europe and the evidence for public interest in Greece harder to find. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. If our voice could be heard, the barbarians who are massacring the Greeks, slaughtering priests, and prostituting Christian virgins to the frenzied soldiery, would soon be punished, annihilated, and driven back to the deserts of Africa and Asia; if our voice could be heard the standard of the Cross would fly over the roofs of Constantinople or over the Parthenon, and the Church of St. Sophia would soon be restored to its former use.[18]. Those interested should apply at once to Grosse Backerstrasse, No. Wild dogs roamed through the smouldering ruins feeding on the putrid corpses. The great majority (except in England) had apparently one edition only, although one or two especially influential works went to as many as four editions. As elsewhere, the leadership of the movement was first taken up by scholars. Humanity and Duty challenge us to hurry to the aid of our brothers, the noble Greeks, to risk our blood, our lives for the Sacred Cause! What the Europeans failed to understand was that the Greek method of fighting was part of a total scale of values quite alien to their own. The flintlock still ruled the arms world in 1822. Having seen the preambles at Monemvasia and Navarino, he felt that he understood the forces that were really at work. Professor Krug was reprimanded by the Saxon Government, ordered to refrain from political activity, and his pamphlet was suppressed. All societies tend to be conservative where their military customs are concerned. As at Tripolitsa and elsewhere there were confused negotiations for a surrender. A handful of captains had such large bands of armed men at their disposal that they were virtually independent chieftains prepared to operate over a wide area. The subject had an apparently irresistible attraction for conventional poets. Could any man suppress his desire to see reborn again in Greece the days of liberation of Marathon and Salamis, and if possible the blessed time when Plato listened to Socrates and when the songs of Homer and the choruses of Sophocles resounded through the court of Pericles and the temple of Phidias.[20]. 33 Translated from Karl Iken, Hellenion, Leipzig, 1822. M. de Pradt, for example, a former bishop who published a steady stream of pamphlets on international affairs (with four on the Greek War alone), caught the popular mood: Land of the arts and the sciences, mother of heroes, teacher of the Universe, at last after six centuries of slavery, you are raising the stone which barbarous hands had placed on your tomb to seal the entrance. In this small area of Germany, the philhellenic movement was permitted to grow and the committees of Darmstadt, Stuttgart, and Frankfurt found themselves thrust into a position of leadership. The Regiment by now was in a terrible state. Some of the local Greek leaders who had enjoyed great authority under the Turks were content that the institutions should remain unchanged. Category:Greek War of Independence | Military Wiki | Fandom. Greek War of Independence: Every Month Khey Pard. Naval Battle at Navarino, by Ambrose-Louis Garneray, 1827 / Bernaki Museum, Athens. Just as the cause of Greece inspired men to write poetry who never wrote another verse, so it inspired to political activity others who for the rest of their lives were content to have their opinions set by government and church. The pamphlet literature published in Western Europe during the Greek War of Independence is huge. Loading ... there were several revolt attempts by Greeks to gain independence from Ottoman control. Learn more about the history and traditions of Greek Independence Day in this article. The Italians took offence at the insult and an affray broke out which lasted several hours. The French Government therefore was inclined to run several contradictory policies at the same time in the confident expectation that they could not all fail. The societies should not simply collect money to help the volunteers but should also establish contacts in Greece itself in order to prepare a favourable reception for them; and to procure suitable appointments, either with the forces already in existence or by forming new forces… Obviously permission to go should not be given to men who are under age or who are lacking in military knowledge. As before, the volunteers who remained were mainly those who had nowhere else to go, the Italian revolutionaries, the Polish exiles, and the French Bonapartists. [17] All over Western Europe and the United States newspapers and reviews published poems more or less in the style of Byron as well as selecting suitable passages from Byron’s works for quotation. The political liberties were withdrawn, the promised constitutions never implemented or stripped of their meaning. The French Government, from the beginning, took an ambivalent view of philhellenism. The captains now become openly hostile, refusing supplies to the Regiment and saying that the Franks should go home since no one had invited them to come to Greece. To keep alive, the Regiment began to make forays into the Greek countryside, seizing animals and food from the peasants, and thus increased the dislike in which they were held. Origins of the Greek War of Independence: 1.Deterioration of the Ottoman imperial structure that led to corruption and increased taxation and rise of the local Muslim notables that challenged the central government. The answer came back that the Greek Revolution was inimical to the policy of Europe, the cause was being exploited for political purposes, and that poetry must be rigorously controlled. When the Greek Revolution broke out, this idea took on a new urgency. Our laws, our literature, our religion, our arts have their root in Greece. On 5 October the Greeks broke in and for two days the town was given over to the mob. The professors were among the first to give a lead. The Greek cause, however, was saved by the intervention of the European powers. It also meant embracing a life for which they were not fitted. One Greek boasted that he had personally killed ninety people. After a long and bloody struggle, and with the aid of the Great Powers, independence was finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832. Throughout the War of Independence, supplies were brought from Cyprus by the Filiki Etairia to aid the Greek struggle. In 1827, Ioannis It was said that the countries which did nothing to stop the massacres of the Greeks were themselves equally guilty with the Turks. Young Greeks spread Enlightenment ideas and Greek literature, art, etc. This is the crushing yoke under which the motherland of civilization is now groaning. Boys also had a value and were usually baptized or circumcised to emphasize their change of faith before being exposed for sale. … The Sacred Company was disbanded. At one time the Turks had driven him out of the Morea and he had served for a while with the British Army in the Ionian Islands. Kotzebue’s ’Ruins of Athens’ for example, to which Beethoven composed the music, is concerned with the theme of Minerva deserting the Parthenon to found a new temple of the Muses in Europe. 35 Translated from the second edition of Wilhelm Traugott Krug, Griechenlands Wiedesgeburt, Leipzig, 1821. The Star-Spangled Banner must wave in the Aegean’.[30]. The Governments of Austria and Prussia, which saw a potential jacobin in every man who questioned monarchical absolutism, could not ignore the connection. 15 Elster, Fahrten, pp. The genocidal orgy in the Peloponnese ended only when there were no more Turks to kill. The Greek War of Independence led Greece to become an independent state from the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) in 1830. These men are the children of the heroes, the poets, the philosophers, the artists, to whom we owe our civilization. The Greek War of Independence (1821–1829), also commonly known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war by the Greeks who won independence for Greece from the Ottoman Empire.Muhammad Ali Pasha sent his son Ismail with a fleet to help fight the Greeks. And quickly manned the defences were innumerable smaller local loyalties remain primarily Frenchmen its most significant features fighting... 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