[22] They fired a shell weighing about 1.1 pounds (0.50 kg) at a muzzle velocity of about 2,000 feet per second (610 m/s) at a rate of 30 rounds per minute to a range about 3,500 yards (3,200 m). United States naval ship classes of World War I. Chesneau, Roger; Koleśnik, Eugène M.; Campbell, N.J.M. Its editors sent a full team of reporters and artists to Havana, including Frederic Remington,[57] and Hearst announced a reward of $50,000 "for the conviction of the criminals who sent 258 American sailors to their deaths. [24][25] Also, the engines were constructed with the high-pressure cylinder aft and the low-pressure cylinder forward. [3] Far more advanced vessels were either in service or nearing completion that year. He offered the standard Cuban interpretation in an interview to The New York Times, but he adds that "Americans died for the freedom of Cuba, and that should be recognized. Classes which did not enter service are listed by the date of cancellation or last work on the project. [9], The winning design for Maine was from Theodore D. Wilson, who served as chief constructor for C & R and was a member on the Naval Advisory Board in 1881. To hell with Spain!" Maine was sent to Havana Harbor to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban War of Independence. [95], The Army Corps of Engineers built a cofferdam around the Maine and pumped water out from inside it. [12], Congress authorized construction of Maine on 3 August 1886, and her keel was laid down on 17 October 1888, at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Moreover, since several of the members of the 1910 board would be certified engineers, they would be better qualified to evaluate their findings than the line officers of the 1898 board had been. A year later the Bureau of Construction and Repair (C & R) presented two designs to Secretary of the Navy William Collins Whitney, one for a 7,500-ton battleship and one for a 5,000-ton armored cruiser. "[56], The New York Journal and New York World, owned respectively by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, gave Maine intense press coverage, employing tactics that would later be labeled "yellow journalism." [10] The winning design for Texas was from a British designer, William John, who was working for the Barrow Shipbuilding Company at that time. Munition stores do not usually explode when a ship is sunk by a mine. Between the proceedings and the findings, there was what Wegner calls, "a broad gap", where the court "left no record of the reasoning that carried it from the often-inconsistent witnesses to [its] conclusion." Three days later, the interior of the cofferdam was full and Maine floated. [11] By 1897, Texas' turrets had been modified with internal rammers to permit much faster reloading. Arent S. Crowninshield in command.. Maine departed the New York Navy Yard on 5 November 1895 … Both ships had two gun turrets staggered en échelon, and full masts were omitted due to the increased reliability of steam engines. U.S. naval yards turned out a number of vessels known as the ABCD ships, which were the steel-hulled Atlanta, … He quoted an "officer high in authority" as saying "The idea that the catastrophe resulted from an internal accident is preposterous. The U.S. Navy had fallen into serious decline following the Civil War, and it had fallen behind several nations in ship technology. Congress did not demand a new investigation into the sinking at that time. [31] These guns were mounted in twin hydraulically powered Mark 3 turrets, the fore turret sponsoned to starboard and the aft turret sponsoned to port.[32]. In addition, there was another potential contributing factor in the bituminous coal: iron sulfide, also known as pyrite, was likely present. The new design also specified Krupp cemented armour which would allow the thickness of the belt armor to be reduced from 16.5 to 12 inches. This investigation, done to commemorate the centennial of the sinking of USS Maine, was based on computer modeling, a technique unavailable for previous investigations. [69] The team noted that this was not "definitive in proving that a mine was the cause of the sinking" but it did "strengthen the case". Warships Collection of Paintings. The cause of her sinking remains a subject of debate.[4]. Only one was built, but it had a top speed of only a little over 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) so it was transferred to the Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island, as a training craft. Had a mine been the cause of the explosion, a column of water would have been observed. [11] The wisdom of this tactic was purely theoretical at the time it was implemented. Based on the preceding heavily armed U.S. battleships ever. She had a metacentric height of 3.45 feet (1.1 m) as designed and was fitted with a ram bow. USS Maine would have been the third ship to bear that name had she been commissioned. Bondoman is correct, the USS MAINE of Spanish American War fame had no sister ships, it was a one off class. This was also the first US battleship class to use submerged torpedo tubes; this became possible because the hulls were at least 20 feet longer than previous US battleships. Most of Maine's crew were sleeping or resting in the enlisted quarters, in the forward part of the ship, when the explosion occurred. In response, Navy Secretary Benjamin Tracy secured a second contractor, the newly expanded Homestead mill of Carnegie, Phipps & Company. The eagle's head was retained by the U.S. USS Maine was built in 1895 as a battleship, but an explosion while in Havana Harbor destroyed the ship and killed 250 crewmembers on Feb. 15, 1898. In the nine years between her being laid down and her completion, naval tactics and technology changed radically and left Maine's role in the navy ill-defined. The lead ship of her pre-Dreadnought battleship class, USS Maine (Battleship #10), was commissioned on December 29, 1902, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They had a maximum range of 9,000 yards (8,200 m) at full elevation. "What Really Sank the. In January 1898, Maine was sent from Key West, Florida, to Havana, Cuba, to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban War of Independence. They fired shells that weighed 105 pounds (48 kg) with a muzzle velocity of about 1,950 feet per second (590 m/s). [87] The Maine monument in Havana describes Maine's sailors as "victims sacrificed to the imperialist greed in its fervor to seize control of Cuba",[88] which claims that U.S. agents deliberately blew up their own ship. She was loaded with dynamite as a possible aid to her sinking. [92][93] One of these suggested that a U.S. Navy ship be blown up in Guantanamo Bay deliberately. [a][1][2] Maine and the similar battleship Texas were both represented as an advance in American warship design, reflecting the latest European naval developments. Pyrites derive their name from the Greek root word pyr, meaning fire, as they can cause sparks when struck by steel or other hard surfaces. "[53] Commodore George Dewey, Commander of the Asiatic Squadron, "feared at first that she had been destroyed by the Spanish, which of course meant war, and I was getting ready for it when a later dispatch said it was an accident. This plan and profile view show Maine with eight six-pounder guns (one is not seen on the port part of the bridge but that is due to the bridge being cut away in the drawing). [62] The Spanish investigation found that the explosion had been caused by spontaneous combustion of the coal bunkers, but the Sampson Board ruled that the explosion had been caused by an external explosion from a torpedo. [5] The hull was patched up until the ship was afloat, then she was towed to sea and sunk. Pyrite oxidation is sufficiently exothermic that underground coal mines in high-sulfur coal seams have occasionally experienced spontaneous combustion in the mined-out areas of the mine. ed. [14], As a result of these changing priorities, Maine was caught between two separate positions and could not perform either one adequately. Two days after that, the Maine was towed out by the tug Osceola. [60], William Randolph Hearst's reporting on Maine whipped up support for military action against the Spanish in Cuba regardless of their actual involvement in the sinking. Maine carried two six-pounders forward, two on the bridge and three on the stern section, all one level above the abbreviated gun deck that permitted the ten-inch guns to fire across the deck. Pyrites were used to strike sparks to ignite gunpowder in wheellock guns, for example. The sinking of the Maine riveted American attention on the Cuban crisis, … On trials, she reached a speed of 16.45 knots (30.47 km/h; 18.93 mph), failing to meet her contract speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph). "[42] In his 1890 annual report to congress, the Secretary of the Navy wrote, "the Maine ... stands in a class by herself" and expected the ship to be commissioned by July 1892. Holes were cut in the bottom of the after-section, through which jets of water were pumped, to break the mud seal holding the ship, then plugged, with flood cocks, which would later be used for sinking the ship. "[73], According to Dana Wegner, who worked with U.S. Admiral Hyman G. Rickover on his 1974 investigation of the sinking, the Secretary of the Navy had the option of selecting a board of inquiry personally. He had designed a number of other warships for the navy. [17] They could also be loaded at any angle of train; initially the main guns of Texas, by comparison, with external rammers, could be loaded only when trained on the centerline or directly abeam, a common feature in battleships built before 1890. The delivery of the Brazilian battleship Riachuelo in 1883 and the acquisition of other modern armored warships from Europe by Brazil, Argentina and Chile the House Naval Affairs Committee, Hilary A. Herbert, stated to Congress: "if all this old navy of ours were drawn up in battle array in mid-ocean and confronted by Riachuelo it is doubtful whether a single vessel bearing the American flag would get into port. To hell with Spain! No dead fish were found in the harbor, as would be expected following an explosion in the water. [101], In 2000, the wreck of Maine was rediscovered by Advanced Digital Communications, a Toronto-based expedition company, in about 3,770 feet (1,150 m) of water roughly 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of Havana Harbor. Painting of USS Maine battleship. The explosion created the rallying cry “Remember the Maine!” as newspaper articles urged the United States to go to war against Spain. The ship lay at the bottom of the harbor until 1911, when a cofferdam was built around it. Of these, there were 261 fatalities: The cause of the accident was immediately debated. [11] The winning design for Maine, though conservative and inferior to other contenders, may have received special consideration due to a requirement that one of the two new ships be American–designed. [21] Her machinery, built by the N. F. Palmer Jr. & Company's Quintard Iron Works of New York,[22] was the first designed for a major ship under the direct supervision of Arctic explorer and soon-to-be commodore, George Wallace Melville. [64] After the investigation, the newly located dead were buried in Arlington National Cemetery and the hollow, intact portion of the hull of Maine was refloated and ceremoniously scuttled at sea on 16 March 1912. Maine's overhanging main turrets also prevented coaling at sea, except in the calmest of waters; otherwise, the potential for damage to a collier, herself or both vessels was extremely great. Commissioned in 1895, Maine possessed four 10" guns and was capable of steaming at 17 knots. By contrast, her contemporary, USS TEXAS, was the product of a design competition, based on an English design, and constructed by a naval contractor. These reports included numerous photos annotated by Furgueson with frame and strake numbers on corresponding parts of the wreckage. The practice of en echelon mounting had begun with Italian battleships designed in the 1870s by Benedetto Brin and followed by the British Navy with HMS Inflexible, which was laid down in 1874 but not commissioned until October 1881. Preston, Anthony. Commissioned in late December 1902, she was in the Atlantic for the next five years. [23] She had two inverted vertical triple-expansion steam engines, mounted in watertight compartments and separated by a fore-to-aft bulkhead, with a total designed output of 9,293 indicated horsepower (6,930 kW). [45] On 5 November 1895, Maine steamed to Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey. A drawback of an en echelon layout limited the ability for a ship to fire broadside, a key factor when employed in a line of battle. National Geographic reported that "a fire in the coal bunker could have generated sufficient heat to touch off an explosion in the adjacent magazine [but] on the other hand, computer analysis also shows that even a small, handmade mine could have penetrated the ship's hull and set off explosions within". Between 20 November and 2 December 1911, a court of inquiry headed by Rear Admiral Charles E. Vreeland inspected the wreck. They concluded that the photos showed "no plausible evidence of penetration from the outside," and they believed that the explosion originated inside the ship. The planned 13-inch 35 caliber guns were replaced by a smaller but more powerful 12-inch 40 caliber gun, which used the new and more efficient smokeless powder. 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