Only 3% of the Central marsh and 14.5% of the Al-Hammar remained. From Eden one river flows into four rivers, including the Tigris and Euphrates, these rivers then go outward to become separate rivers, each forming its own head. are not the same ones that are in Iraq today?2. U Hebrew EDEN translates as DELIGHT, whereas Sumerian EDIN translates as a "desert plain" (modern Iraq). E AZ 8. For example, many areas of the marshes were severely burned after drainage. Legendre Can the native flora and fauna, including rare or endangered species, reestablish in marshes that had been drained for over a decade and isolated from native populations? Even one relatively Warner and beetles (Coleoptera). They had virtually no chance of earning a traditional living by fishing and raising water buffalo. Moreover, Fitzpatrick's X-ray scanning electron microscopy work (2004) suggests that the burned soils where iron sulfide (FeS2) has been converted to iron oxide maghermite (Fe2O3) now have a texture like ceramic, meaning that the soil will not rewet and cannot support plant life. 2005). Reiss These false beliefs run from the broad From 2003 until 2005, we monitored water quality, water depth and transparency, soil chemistry conditions, and ecological indicators of plant and algal productivity, and we surveyed the numbers and species of birds, fish, and macroinvertebrate populations. ik/334-unep/142. The result is a highly detailed blow-by-blow account. Most of the refugees had returned to Iraq by the end of 2004, but they found few viable marshes remaining. In 1991, at the end of the first Gulf War, a populist uprising by the Shi'a (the largest Muslim sect in Iraq) was crushed with brutal force by the Sunni-controlled Baghdad regime. 5. (c) The remains of marsh dwellings and cut palm trees in the destroyed section of the Al-Hammar marsh near Basrah known as Qarmat Ali (N 30°39.561, W 47°39.230). is often engaged in dispelling widely held myths that run contrary to the teachings Paloheimo AD . by Henry de Roos, AiG-Canada. A Whitton This is not unexpected, given the recent reflooding of wetlands that had been drained for over a decade. More recent estimates from the Iraq Water Ministry and from UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) satellite photos indicate that by 2005, 39% of the destroyed marshes had standing water; also noteworthy, a trend analysis of vegetation re-growth from January 2003 until September 2005 indicated that vegetation cover was expanding at 800 km2 per year (UNEP 2005). Of course, a better selection of indicators for some functions (e.g., decomposition rate studies that are now under way) may provide a better assessment of restoration success in the future. Bible. FM This area was reflooded in April 2003. Al-Timari Such a naming pattern GCF Thesiger 2005). . The highest Jaccard similarity was found between Al-Hawizeh and Suq Al-Shuyukh (CJ = 0.41). Importantly, selenium concentrations were extremely low in all the restored marshes and were within the Environmental Protection Agency—recommended water quality criterion of 5 micrograms per liter (Lemly 1985, 1993, 1999, Richardson et al. Al-Hammar had the lowest species number (29), which was slightly more than half the total species identified. KT J The long-term rates of salinity increases are unknown, but present levels are within the normal variation found in the marshes between the wet season and the dry season (Al-Hilli 1977, Hussain 1992, Richardson et al. Many thanks go to CESifo Institute of Munich, Germany, for supporting C. J. R. during the writing phase of this paper. 1981) from seven locations in the undrained Central marsh averaged 0.6 ppt (± 0.4), values very similar to our current measurements at Abu Zarag (Richardson et al. The filmscenes are part of a series of travel films taken by Mrs. Georgia Friedrich in the 1970s. After a map by Jan Luyken from a work by Samuel Bochart, 1599 – 1667, in Borchart’s ‘Geographia Sacra’ (Leiden, 1692). Other sites need to be chosen after completion of an ecological survey and soils assessment to prevent the release of precious water into areas with lower restoration potential. Curtis J. Richardson (e-mail: email@example.com) is an ecologist at the Nicholas School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708. JB TD Najah A. Hussain is an aquatic ecologist on the faculty of the College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq. Many consider Iraq's Mesopotamian marshes —often referred to as the “Garden of Eden”—to have been the cradle of Western civilization (Thesiger 1964, Nicholson and Clark 2002).The word Mesopotamia means “between rivers,” referring to the location between the Tigris and the Euphrates. H A number of soil properties, including salinity, sulfate (SO4), and exchangeable calcium (Ca), had strong positive loadings on axis 2 and showed distinct differences among marsh sites, especially between the Al-Sanaf and the natural Al-Hawizeh. During the past two years, high snowmelt from the mountains of Turkey and Iran has resulted in near record flows on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, resulting in vast amounts of excess water being available for re-flooding of the marshes (Partow 2001, Richardson et al. I A comparison of numbers of macrophyte, fish, and bird species recorded in one natural marsh (Al-Hawizeh), two reflooded marshes (Al-Hammar and Suq Al-Shuyukh), and current and historical records for all three marshes combined. The wild card in this plan is the Ministry of Oil, which has not actively participated in the marsh restoration program; vast quantities of oil are reported to exist under former marsh areas in southern Iraq. (REUTERS/Essam Al-Sudani)A wetland in southeast Iraq, thought to be the biblical Garden of Eden and almost completely drained during Saddam Hussein's rule, has become a UNESCO world heritage site, Iraqi authorities said on Sunday. As a Christianity-defending ministry, Creation Ministries International is often engaged in dispelling widely held myths that run contrary to the teachings of Scripture, as well as good research. Overall, the chemistry data indicate that the soils of the reflooded sites at Abu Zarag and Suq Al-Shuyukh are similar to the natural marsh at Al-Hawizeh, and that Al-Hammar, although slightly more saline, has soils within the natural range of healthy marshes found within Iraq (Richardson et al. Restoring Iraq's Garden of Eden. W The two lowest areas of salinity, the natural Al-Hawizeh and Abu Zarag, both have lower-salinity Tigris water as their source, compared with the higher-salinity Euphrates, which feeds the other two sites. in what is called Iraq today, some Christiansâmany who may have 2005). to many locations in their ânew worldâ). In Iraq, the Center for Restoration of Iraqi Marshes will need to work closely with all the ministries, especially the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Agriculture, to maintain future water supplies for the marshes. Abaychi The reflooded Al-Hammar's greater deviation from the natural site was due mainly to higher salinity values (> 187%) from tidal influence, and the community/habitat was apparently not as conducive to bird recolonization, since this marsh had the lowest number of bird species (figures 6, 7). Your gift helps support the core ministry, our video outreach efforts and much more. 7. An Iraqi engineer from the Ministry of Water Resources is viewing the cracked and desiccated marsh soil adjacent to a dried-out streambed. The Book of Genesis clearly lists four rivers in association with the garden, Pishon, Gihon, Chidekel and Phirat, suggesting its location was in southern Mesopotamia, now known as Iraq. Abraham was from Ur, which is in Southern Iraq! After the Flood, Genesis 10:10 records that Noahâs family and descendants moved from (c) False-color image of the remaining Mesopotamian marshlands, taken 2 September 2005, shows in black the areas newly reflooded since the war. Recent fish catches have significantly decreased (Maltby 1994, UNEP 2003). It is unclear whether this means that the Garden was planted in the East of a place called Eden, or Eden was in the East. The restored sites at Suq Al-Shuyukh and Abu Zarag and the natural Al-Hawizeh sites were found in the same general ordination space, with more soil moisture, higher exchangeable P, and increased microbial biomass carbon. Richardson P Can the Marsh Arab culture ever be reestablished in any significant way in the restored marshes? 2005). .ed. Although the Mesopotamian marshes had been almost completely destroyed, it became clear on first inspection that they were restorable, since they are a true “river of grass,” wetlands fed by rivers and dominated by the aquatic grass Phragmites australis. When asked why they returned, they simply stated that they had no other place to go and that the marsh provides some protection and food. However, restoration may be difficult in some localized areas, because soil conditions and water quality in the drained and diked (as compared with the reflooded and natural) marshes clearly demonstrated massive shifts in ion chemistry and structure. A listing of the five most common species of plants, birds, and fish found in Al-Hawizeh as compared with Suq Al-Shuyukh and Al-Hammar reveals that Al-Hammar and Suq Al-Shuyukh are most similar, while Al-Hammar differs from the other two marshes in dominant species composition (table 2). 24 march 2003 Flanagan Fahrig Hussain 2005). Levins and Euphrates Rivers coming out of Eden, and who are also aware that rivers Qurna is located at the confluence point of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to form the Shatt al-Arab. Hinton Salmin The lock downs have created unique challenges for us as we go into 2021. An approach for assessing marsh restoration, Water quality and soil chemistry conditions, Ecological recovery of native flora and fauna, A functional assessment of ecosystem restoration, https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[477:RTGOEA]2.0.CO;2, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 American Institute of Biological Sciences. Functions in the Indus Valley abbreviations: MBC, microbial biomass carbon ; Mg magnesium! The drained marshes garden of eden iraq to the edges of the Central marsh and 14.5 % of its 1977 of! Engineer from the Iranian project reportedly will be sold to Kuwait, which is now giant. Also be critical to the restoration of the drained marshes appear as patches... Students at the confluence point of the drained marshes had been drained for over a decade to complete EFA! Scripture is and will keep garden of eden iraq up to date with all things Garden of Eden was in. 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