Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death. Though this was not achieved during his reign, the marriage eventually led to the union of the English and Scottish crowns under Margaret's great-grandson, James VI and I, following the death of Henry's granddaughter Elizabeth I. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. Prince Arthur's Nov. 14, 1501, marriage to Catherine of Aragon was ended by Arthur's death on April 2, 1502, from a respiratory infection. His father, Edmund Tudor, was captured … Elizabeth of York (February 11, 1466–February 11, 1503) was a key figure in Tudor history and in the Wars of the Roses.She was the daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville; Queen of England and Queen Consort of Henry VII; and the mother of Henry VIII, Mary Tudor, and Margaret Tudor, the only woman in history to have been daughter, sister, niece, wife, and mother to English kings. She survived until 1541, when she was executed by Henry VIII. These laws were used shrewdly in levying fines upon those that he perceived as threats. And the three monar… Mary, born in 1516, was the only surviving child of King Henry VIII’s 24-year marriage to Katherine of … Born in 1495 or 1496 (there is … [23], Henry married Elizabeth of York with the hope of uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian sides of the Plantagenet dynastic disputes, and he was largely successful. Born: 28 January 1457 Pembroke Castle, Wales. In 1407, Henry IV and his first wife issued a new deed confirming the legitimacy of the brothers. Others suspected of being Henry VIII’s illegitimate children include: Thomas Stukley (Stukeley, Stuckley, Stucley) – Born 1520. At Rennes Cathedral on Christmas Day 1483, Henry pledged to marry Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter of Edward IV. The posthumous reputation of Henry VII,", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 04:17. However, following Henry VII's death in 1509, Mary's brother Henry, now on the throne, decided that betrothing his sister to the king of France would be more politically advantageous. In doing so, he was a potential threat to the York regime, and Edward IV tried several times to get him in his power. [20] After his coronation Henry issued an edict that any gentleman who swore fealty to him would, notwithstanding any previous attainder, be secure in his property and person. He was supported in this effort by his chancellor, Archbishop John Morton, whose "Morton's Fork" was a catch-22 method of ensuring that nobles paid increased taxes: those nobles who spent little must have saved much, and thus could afford the increased taxes; in contrast, those nobles who spent much obviously had the means to pay the increased taxes. At the same time, Flemish merchants were ejected from England. married to Henry VII, king of England, on 18 January 1486 at Westminster Abbey, London. [17][18], Henry devised a plan to seize the throne by engaging Richard quickly because Richard had reinforcements in Nottingham and Leicester. Several of Richard's key allies, such as Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, and also Lord Stanley and his brother William, crucially switched sides or left the battlefield. Thus, Henry's claim was somewhat tenuous; it was from a woman, and by illegitimate descent. Many of the entries show a man who loosened his purse strings generously for his wife and children, and not just on necessities: in spring 1491 he spent a great amount of gold on a lute for his daughter Mary; the following year he spent money on a lion for Elizabeth's menagerie. [36] According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple "greed" underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henry's final years. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, the father of Henry VII. From the father, Henry inherited the title earl of Richmond, from his mother’s claim to England’s throne as head of the house of Lancaster. They would go on to have a large family, with 4 children – including the future Henry VIII – surviving to adulthood. Henry VII was the first Tudor king of England . Philip died shortly after the negotiations. In theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile. Henry was born at Pembroke Castle in Wales in 1457, the only son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, and his wife, Lady Margaret Beaufort. Up to a point, he succeeded. [citation needed], However, his principal weapon was the Court of Star Chamber. After the Battle of Bosworth, Henry became king of England with the name of Henry VII and ended the Wars of the Two Roses. His mother survived him but died two months later on 29 June 1509. Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, and "formally declared legitimate by Parliament". 4. On the debit side, he may have looked a little delicate as he suffered from poor health. "Ill of the dead. However, he spared Warwick's elder sister Margaret. [citation needed], The first was the 1486 rebellion of the Stafford brothers, abetted by Viscount Lovell, which collapsed without fighting. People disliked that. The Merchant Adventurers, the company which enjoyed the monopoly of the Flemish wool trade, relocated from Antwerp to Calais. In the late 20th century a model of European state formation was prominent in which Henry less resembles Louis and Ferdinand.[66]. They had six children, but only four survived infancy: Arthur Tudor (September 1486- April 1502) Margaret Tudor (November 1489- October 1541) Henry VIII (June 1491- January 1547) Mary Tudor (March 1496- June 1533) Edmund Tudor (Died young) Catherine Tudor (Died young) Henry VII increased taxes so future kings would have enough money. His son became king Henry VIII of England.. He loved hunting, playing games like tennis, dancing and reading. Born on 28 June 1491 at Greenwich Palace in London, Henry was the second eldest son to Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. but at the same time declaring them ineligible for the throne. For instance, the Stanley family had control of Lancashire and Cheshire, upholding the peace on the condition that they stayed within the law. Arthur Tudor died due to Sweating sickness the following year. Henry's wife died as a result of Katherine's birth. He created a new emblem for his dynasty: the Rose Tudor, which brought together the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York. [42] Henry had pressured the French by laying siege to Boulogne in October 1492. The marriage will take place only after the death of Henry VII, June 11, 1509, according to the wishes of the latter. [37] Henry VIII executed Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley, his two most hated tax collectors, on trumped-up charges of treason. Prince Henry as a young child. Henry VII of England (Born on January 28, 1457, at Pembroke Castle, Wales, Died on April 21, 1509, in Richmond Palace), was King of England and Lord of Ireland from August 22, 1485, until his death and the founder of the Tudor dynasty. 176–177, John M. Currin, "Henry VII and the Treaty of Redon (1489): Plantagenet Ambitions and Early Tudor Foreign Policy. Henry spared Richard's nephew and designated heir, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, and made the Yorkist heiress Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Salisbury suo jure. Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, eldest son, first husband of Catherine of Aragon; predeceased father without progeny. Otherwise, at the time of his father's arranging of the marriage to Catherine of Aragon, the future Henry VIII was too young to contract the marriage according to Canon Law and would be ineligible until age fourteen. A few months later, on January 18, 1486, he married Elizabeth of York. [citation needed], Gaunt's nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunt's children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397. By this marriage, Henry VII hoped to break the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France. Henry VII, king of England (1485–1509), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty. He founded the Tudor dynasty by winning the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. Henry obtains a dispensation from Pope Julius II so that the widow Catherine of Aragon can remarry with her younger son, the future Henry VIII. Henry reigned for nearly 24 years and was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII. Henry started a new rebellion by landing again in Wales; Richard III met Henry but, due to the treason of certain nobles, his army was unable to win the Battle of Bosworth, in which Ricardo himself fought bravely and died (August 22, 1485). [13][21] They were third cousins, as both were great-great-grandchildren of John of Gaunt. In 1497 Warbeck landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was soon captured and executed. His younger brother, Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke, undertook to protect Edmund's widow Margaret, who was 13 years old when she gave birth to Henry. [49] Despite this, Henry was keen to constrain their power and influence, applying the same principles to the Justices of the Peace as he did to the nobility: a similar system of bonds and recognisances to that which applied to both the gentry and the nobles who tried to exert their elevated influence over these local officials. Following the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471, Edward prepared to order Henry's extraction and probable execution. [31], In 1499, Henry had the Earl of Warwick executed. Memorials of the South Saxon See and Cathedral Church of Chichester. Not to be confused with her niece, Mary I of England, Mary Tudor was the youngest surviving child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. After defeating his rival Richard III to win the throne, he established a dynasty that would rule for more than 100 years. [43] He also concluded the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Scotland (the first treaty between England and Scotland for almost two centuries), which betrothed his daughter Margaret to King James IV of Scotland. Henry passed away in 1509, at age 52. His mother, Margareta Beaufort, was the last of the Beaufort family. The marriage did not take place during his lifetime. Henry married his son Arthur to Catharine of Aragón, daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragón and Isabella of Castile, his daughter Margaret to James IV of Scotland, and his youngest daughter Mary to Louis XII of France. Henry VIII enjoyed being outdoors and getting exercise. Henry VIII is famous for killing off his wives for failing to give him a son. Catherine had been married to Henry V until his death, but after Henry V’s death, she married Owen Tudor. Their powers and numbers steadily increased during the time of the Tudors, never more so than under Henry's reign. Henry seems to have genuinely wept for her. The purpose of the agreement was to prevent France from annexing Brittany. Unknown was born in Breton, Viviers, Rhône-Alpes, France. [28], Next, in 1487, Yorkists led by Lincoln rebelled in support of Lambert Simnel, a boy they claimed to be Edward of Warwick, (who was actually a prisoner in the Tower). He was a half-cousin of the first Tudor king, Henry VII; Richard Pole’s mother was a half-sister of Margaret Beaufort, Henry VII’s mother. New taxes stabilised the government's finances. The stand-off eventually paid off for Henry. Henry VII, usually reserved and not showing his feelings, was very saddened. Coronation: 30 October 1485 Philip had been shipwrecked on the English coast, and while Henry's guest, was bullied into an agreement so favourable to England at the expense of the Netherlands that it was dubbed the Malus Intercursus ("evil agreement"). However, this treaty came at a price, as Henry mounted a minor invasion of Brittany in November 1492. Amateur historians Bertram Fields and Sir Clements Markham have claimed that he may have been involved in the murder of the Princes in the Tower, as the repeal of Titulus Regius gave the Princes a stronger claim to the throne than his own. [46], In 1506, Henry extorted the Treaty of Windsor from Philip the Handsome of Burgundy. Learn more about Henry VII’s life, reign, and accomplishments in this article. During the first reign of Edward IV, Henry was in the care of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. She was a descendant of King Edward III through John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. This approach raised puzzling questions about similarities and differences in the development of national states. Edmund was appointed 1st Earl of Richmond in 1452 and “officially declared legitimate by Parliament.”. In Brittany, Henry grew up and was educated as one of the candidates of the House of Lancaster to the throne occupied at that time by the house of York. Henry VII and Elizabeth of York’s tomb at Westminster Abbey It is Henry VII’s reaction to Elizabeth’s death that is the strongest case to show the depth of affection they shared. King Henry VII of England - born Henry Tudor on 28th January 1457 - became King through his victory over King Richard III at Bosworth on 22nd August 1485. They were appointed for every shire and served for a year at a time. [citation needed], By 1509, Justices of the Peace were key enforcers of law and order for Henry VII. Estimates of the size of Henry's army at Bosworth vary. He cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward. The Treaty of Redon was signed in February 1489 between Henry and representatives of Brittany. Serious disputes involving the use of personal power, or threats to royal authority, were thus dealt with. [citation needed], He also formed an alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1493–1519) and persuaded Pope Innocent VIII to issue a papal bull of excommunication against all pretenders to Henry's throne. After Edward took the throne in 1471, Henry Tudor spent 14 years in exile in Brittany. "[59][60] Worse still, Henry's older daughter Margaret had previously been betrothed to the King of Scotland, James IV, and within months of her mother's death she had to be escorted to the border by her father: he would never see her again. To strengthen his position, however, he subsidised shipbuilding, so strengthening the navy (he commissioned Europe's first ever – and the world's oldest surviving – dry dock at Portsmouth in 1495) and improving trading opportunities. [1] Henry's paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, originally from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of King Henry V. He rose to become one of the "Squires to the Body to the King" after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. In 1485, after receiving financial support from the duke, and having secured some Welsh support. Henry VIII had many suspected illegitimate children but only acknowledged one, Henry Fitzroy the first Duke of Richmond and Somerset, born 15 June 1519. Amiable and high-spirited, Henry was friendly if dignified in manner, and it was clear that he was extremely intelligent. He was medium-sized, well-proportioned, and with a red hardness on his cheek. [citation needed], During his lifetime the nobility often jeered him for re-centralizing power in London, and later the 16th-century historian Francis Bacon was ruthlessly critical of the methods by which he enforced tax law, but it is equally true that Henry Tudor was hellbent on keeping detailed records of his personal finances, down to the last halfpenny;[57] these and one account book detailing the expenses of his queen survive in the British National Archives, as do accounts of courtiers and many of the king's own letters. Henry’s father died 3 months before his birth, and Henry spent much time with his uncle, Jasper Tudor, his father’s younger brother. "Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey" by Arthur Penryn Stanley (page 281-282): the 1486 rebellion of the Stafford brothers, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Cultural depictions of Henry VII of England, "Westminster Abbey website: Coronations, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York", "Calendar of State Papers, Spain: Supplement To Volumes 1 and 2, Queen Katherine; Intended Marriage of King Henry VII To Queen Juana", "Domestic and foreign policy of Henry VII", "Queen Margaret's Arch | York Civic Trust", Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_VII_of_England&oldid=992982995, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Henry VII's successor as King of England and the first King of Ireland. [citation needed], Henry also made some political capital out of his Welsh ancestry in attracting military support and safeguarding his army's passage through Wales on its way to the Battle of Bosworth. Instead, hardly any of their children survived after the first one. Queen Elizabeth of York, to save the future of the dynasty, fell pregnant for the last time but died on February 11, 1503of puerperal sepsis, a few days after giving birth to Catherine Tudor. Name: King Henry VII Born: January 28, 1457 at Pembroke Castle Parents: Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort Relation to Elizabeth II: 13th great-grandfather House of: Tudor Ascended to the throne: August 22, 1485 aged 28 years Crowned: October 30, 1485 at Westminster Abbey Married: Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV Children: Three sons and four daughters. 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