[8] Collared pikas tend to have multiple haystacks of vegetation throughout their home range and often dwell in the same site annually. Let's move on to another Pika that might be going through some changes. Those species that burrow live in less mountainous regions known as steppe, or grassland. Collared Pikas are behaviorally restricted to talus patches and typically remain within 10 metres of the talus edge when foraging in meadows. [12] Consequently, collared pikas have been recognized as an indicator species for the effect of climate change on alpine ecosystems. There is one designatable unit for Collared Pika in Canada. You need to focus on where the call is coming from and watch out for movement among rocks, or the pika's silhouette against the sky. [9] The soles of their feet are covered with long fur, while still exposing their digital pads on the soles of their feet and their curved claws. [3] Collared pikas, like most other pikas, choose to live around rock slides to use the rocks as protection against the high temperatures they must endure throughout the day; they are referred to as cold-adapted lagomorphs. With your symbolic adoption, you're helping WWF-Canada ensure the long-term survival of species like the collared pika and its habitat. [8] This species is often kleptoparasitic and takes food from others. [12], The lifespan of O. collaris can be up to 7 years in the wild. Its sharp, curved claws help it climb easily from rock to rock. [9] The mortality rate is high during winter and they have suffered from a continuous reduction of population over time. They do not burrow but instead take shelter within their talus habitats. What kind of habitat/landscape has you favorite animals? Puma or Hyena? [8] Of the 30 existing species of pika, only two inhabit North America, O. collaris and O. princeps. Their hay piles could provide food for other herbivorous mammals. [2] In various regions of the Yukon, the range is around one to four pikas per hectare. [15] No population trend is known, but the population of collared pikas has experienced a decline since 1995 in the Yukon area, and is proposed to have a higher probability of extinction within that specific area in 10 to 15 years. These animals vocalize often during hay gathering. [3] This gap encompasses both British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Collared Pikas inhabit primarily alpine boulder fields (talus) that are interspersed with meadow. Modeling of previous glacial periods suggest that the distribution of collared pika has decreased in response to warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (COSEWIC 2011; Hope et al. [10] During the summer, young that resemble the size of an adult are fully gray, while actual adults have brown stains around their heads or necks. Adult size is reached after just 40 to 50 days. [14] However, the pinnacle of the mating season arises in May and early June. Col­lared pikas, Ochotona col­laris, are found in the moun­tain­ous re­gions of cen­tral and south­east­ern Alaska, in the Yukon-Tanana up­lands to the Chig­mit Moun­tains, and from the Richard­son Moun­tains north of the Artic cir­cle in the Yukon, west of the Macken­zie River in the North­west Ter­ri­to­ries, and south into north­west­ern British Co­lum­bia (Mac­Don­ald and Jones, 1987). [16] Upon finding some asynchronous breeding among pikas, due to not being able to predict snowmelt, this type of breeding could ensure some success in breeding. Young remain in their nest for about 30 days before being weaned, when they emerge to the surface. [9] They are most active during the morning and late afternoon. [9], O. collaris is distributed over a wide range of terrain that encompasses the west side of the Northwest Territories, almost all of the Yukon Territory, northern British Columbia, and the central and southern parts of Alaska. [8] They have five digits on each front foot and only four on each hind foot. Females produce up to two litters per year, of 2 to 6 young, born in nests within the talus. This species tends to mate with the nearest neighbors, a system known as ‘facultatively (functionally) monogamous.’ In monogamous behavior, males mate only with one female. "Ochotona collaris" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. [8], The estimated population density is roughly around 6.4 to 7.2 individuals per hectare. [8] Collared pika calls sound like a recurring single sharp note with each series varying in loudness and is similar to the American pika’s short call. “Mammalian Species: Ochotona collaris.”, Leininger, C. 2009. The word pika is derived from the Siberian name for this animal, puka. All except two of the 30 species of pika alive today occur in Asia, which is probably where they originated. They are mainly solitary, but are sometimes seen in pairs. They will also eat low-lying vegetation such as lichen that is under the snow during the winter. [12] Their homes have a range of about 30 m in diameter with caches and dens distancing from 30 to 70 m.[8] The way organisms respond to climate change can be a distinct and peculiar characteristic, so patterns between closely related species, such as the collared pika and the American pika, are important. As they look like small rabbits, naturalists at first called Collared pikas coneys or rock rabbits. 30 days is the period of gestation. In North America, they also are called "rock rabbits," "coneys," and "little chief hares." This helps the Pika stay warm in the freezing temperatures. [8] In 1973, during the isolation of the Wisconsin glaciation, O. collaris may have become its own species separate from O. Due to these talus sites, the species’ range distribution is broken up into several condensed areas. This talus-meadow combination offers access to forage (meadow) and shelter from predators and weather (talus). Litters are typically of two or three offspring, though there have been reports of litters with up to six offspring. The collared pika (Ochotona collaris) is the only species of pika found in Alaska. The vast majority of species live in mountainous regions among the rocks and crevices. Collared pikas also sometimes live in areas close to sea level in Alaska and British Columbia. The "collar" from which the Collared pika gets its name is a distinct grayish patch on its shoulder and neck, which is in definite contrast with the white fur on the chest and stomach. Around 60% of collared pikas are found in regions of Canada, with most of them being in Yukon. Pick one: Collared Pika. They have stocky bodies, large round ears, short legs, and almost no tail. Although heard, these animals are not necessarily so easy to see because they are camouflaged perfectly amongst the rocks. Learn about Yukon Collared Pika and how and where to view them. The pika has adapted to life in areas that rarely get above freezing and can overheat and die when exposed to temperatures as mild as 78 degrees Fahrenheit. Pikas are highly alert, and have excellent hearing and vision. The collared pika (Ochotona collaris) is a species of mammal in the pika family, Ochotonidae, and part of the order Lagomorpha, which comprises rabbits, hares, and pikas. 1987. [3] Therefore, the collared pika is seen as an asocial species and prefers solitude. [2] Due to these talus sites, the species’ range distribution is broken into several condensed areas. [11] The parturition time of most collared pikas is often synchronous in terms of breeding,[11] however there has been a study that has identified some correlation between variation in initiating the first litter and the variation of timing of the snowmelt. Collared pikas live in central and southern Alaska and parts of Canada, including in the west in the Northwest Territories and in northern British Columbia, Yukon. Collared Pika (Ochotona collaris) in typical rockslide habitat near Hatcher Pass in August on a sunny day. Juvenile pikas can achieve the size of an adult around 40 to 50 days. Mammals of North America: (Second Edition).” Princeton University Press. Similarly, habitat occupancy of collared pika was governed by talus patch size and connectivity (Franken and Hik 2004). Collared pika with identification tag. [2] Nevertheless, the collared pika may be susceptible to the negative effects of climate change, and some investigation should be instigated to monitor the negative effects of the new unlimited, year-round hunting rules[where?] [8] Parturition timing for northern alpine herbivores is vital due to the brief snow-free timeframe and lack of food sources. Collared pikas sure are cute, eh? A pika's call is unmistakable once you have heard it: a single, piercing note like “ank” or “ink” heard over several hundred yards. [8] Collared pikas, both male and female, are reproductively developed at one year of age and give birth to two or three young each year in their nests within the talus. [15] The males receive the females around the end of spring. It is part of a dataset of projected current and future potential distributions of 366 terrestrial vertebrate species, including 12 amphibians, 237 birds, and 117 mammals, based on correlative bioclimatic models and projected changes in biomes. [14], Collared pikas generally mate with their nearest neighbors and are believed to be facultatively monogamous, but they have also been predicted to participate in polygynandry and reproduce with multiple partners, because males often travel to territories of several females during the spring before mating season begins. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2011] Top Females are responsible for the majority of parental care. Currently this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List. They are lesser known but nonetheless charismatic members of the order Lagomorpha and are closely related to rabbits and hares. The appearance of collared pikas is similar to other members of the genus Ochotona. How do you catch a pika? They consume their soft fecal pellets to reduce the loss of nutritional value in their food. In addition, an interesting characteristic about the male collared pika is that it has no scrotum and the location of its testes is not visibly apparent. They are sexually mature where they are one year old. We found no support for the acoustic adaptation hypothesis. The breeding season peaks from May to early June. [17] Both males and females can emit vocalizations from some sort of fixed position within their home ranges, especially during the period of gathering. [13] When gathering food, pika rarely travels more than 10 m away from its talus site. The Collared Pika (Ochotona collaris) is considered an indicator species for climate change, because of their sensitivity to climatic fluctuations and the natural isolation of suitable habitat. While there is no apparent concern for Collared pikas at this time, climate change could be a threat, as they are sensitive to high temperatures in their environment, and the high elevation habitats to which they are restricted are declining as a result of climate change. Discover (and save!) Collared Pika on The IUCN Red List site -, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collared_pika, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/41257/0. [9] Adult males specifically have their own call that sounds like a strong series of “kie” calls and clicking during mating season. [2] Around 60% of collared pikas are found in regions of Canada, with most of them being in Yukon. “Forage selection by collared pikas, Ochotona collaris, under varying degrees of predation risk.”, Kays, Roland W., Wilson, Don E.. “ 2009. It is the only pika found in Alaska. Collared pikas are diurnal and they do not hibernate in winter. (Pg. Habitat and biology. Habitat. Geographic call variation in these two species of pikas likely reflects genetic divergence, and may be a result of separate evolutionary histories. [18] The struggle to survive the winters and the fast-rate climate variations have affected their growing season and availability of resources, especially from the negative impact of not having snowpacks to keep them insulated or to keep their food and shelters hidden from predators. [2] It is asocial, does not hibernate,[5] and spends a large part of its time in the summer collecting vegetation that is stored under rocks ("haypiles") as a supply of food for the winter. 2015), but expectations of future distributional change are equivocal (COSEWIC 2011; Hope et al. that allow for the hunting of collared pikas. [8] They do not have a pubic symphysis therefore it does not have a pubic arch within its pelvic girdle. The Collared pika is a key species that is consumed by numerous predators (ermines, weasels, foxes, owls, eagles). During the cold winters, the collared pika does not hibernate, but instead stays active, counting on its food sources for energy and survival, and uses the snowpack as a means of insulation. Pikas defend individual territories of about 15 to 25 m radius. [11] Although both can reproduce at one year of age, the male’s reproductive success is reliant on acquiring habitat and drawing females. Range map information. This small rabbit-relative is a Beringian relict that is restricted to talus slopes in alpine areas in northern west British Columbia, Yukon, and Northwest Territories. [7] Thousands of trips are made during July and August to collect vegetation for winter. [9] One of the main predators of the collared pika found in south-central Alaska is the ermine,[10] but also include martens, weasels, foxes, eagles, coyotes, and other various birds. [8] They range between 130 and 200 g in body mass and 17.8 to 19.8 cm in length. [10] The food caches have been seen to be similar to the size of location of storage. [12], Collared pikas are diurnal herbivores and spend time foraging through vegetation during the summer. It is a small (~160 gram) alpine lagomorph that lives in boulder fields of central and southern Alaska (U.S. ), and in parts of Canada, including northern British Columbia, Yukon, and western parts of the Northwest Territories. princeps. Given their susceptibility to climate change, Collared Pika is listed as Special Concern in … [11] They have constricted, flat skulls with no supraorbital processes, slender zygomatic arches, and 26 teeth. Collared Pikas are behaviorally restricted to talus patches … Collared pikas impact grass and herbaceous plant species in their high elevation habitats.
“Forage selection by collared pikas, Ochotona collaris, under varying degrees of predation risk.”, Kays, Roland W., Wilson, Don E.. “ 2009. princeps. Collared pikas live in central and southern Alaska and parts of Canada, including in the west in the Northwest Territories and in northern British Columbia, Yukon. [3] It is a small (about 160 g) alpine lagomorph that lives in boulder fields of central and southern Alaska (U.S.),[4] and in parts of Canada, including northern British Columbia, Yukon, and western parts of the Northwest Territories. 2. They sometimes eat birds, which provide them with protein and fat. Both the males and females of this species are very vocal. “We lure them into live traps with native vegetation,” Christie said. [8], They are petite in size with longer hind limbs than their fore limbs, with their hind limbs being about 2.9 to 3.1 cm. They are called "coneys," "rock rabbits," and "little chief hares" In North America. [9], The female’s gestation period lasts about 30 days and produces a litter of blind and almost hairless offspring. They are known by various names including cony and rock rabbit, the latter referring to the fact that N American and some Asian pikas occur only in rocky habitats. In this research project I applied multivariate analyses to explore the relationship between habitat occupancy by collared pikas and a number of spatial, environmental and climate variables. [9] The female is the one that yields the most parental investment and is burdened by energetic constraints during gestation and lactation. All but two of the 30 living species of pika occur in Asia, where they … [9] For both male and females, the average weight is around 157 g, with maximum growth rates increasing moving toward the northern parts of collared pika territories. “COLLARED PIKA (OCHOTONA COLLARIS) OCCUPANCY IN TOMBSTONE TERRITORIAL PARK, YUKON.”, Morrison, Shawn, Barton, Luc, Caputra, Peter, Hik, David S.. 2004. As pika distribution shifts northward in response to climate change, population growth at the leading edge of their range may be inhibited by a lack of available habitat. The collared pika (O. collaris) of Alaska and northern Canada has been found on the isolated nunataks (crags or peaks surrounded by glaciers) in Kluane National Park, and O. macrotis has been recorded at 6,130 metres (20,113 feet) on the slopes of the Himalayas. "Coney" is a generic word for many small mammals that live amongst rocks, including pika and hyrax. Aug 9, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Betty Hatcher Moore. Some species also construct burrows in the soil. habitat and physiological requirements (Morrison and Hik 2007; COSEWIC 2011). Collared Pikas inhabit primarily alpine boulder fields (talus) that are interspersed with meadow. [12] More specifically, in Alaska, they occur most frequently in ranges around the Yukon-Tanana uplands and Chigmit Mountains, to the head of Lynn Canal near Skagway; in Canada, they occur from Richardson Mountains, south into northwestern British Columbia and west close to the Mackenzie River of the Northwest Territories. pika habitat. Collared pikas sit to call with their body hunched up and their nose pointed slightly into the air. Your adoption kit comes with a plush toy, a stunning poster with species facts, a personalized certificate and an optional reusable tote bag! They live in mountainous terrain with large boulders and talus slopes, which often have rock slides. Most species live on rocky mountainsides, where numerous crevices are available for their shelter, although some pikas also construct crude burrows. [14] The young remain in the nest around 30 days before they are weaned and emerge to the surface. They prefer to live at the edges of talus slopes, where there are meadows and areas of high-quality vegetation immediately nearby. These analyses were applied to data collected from a ten year study in the Ruby Ranges in the Yukon Territory. "Pika" comes from the Siberian word for this animal, "puka." [8] The studies of the size variation of the fossils showed that the morphology of Pleistocene pikas was flexible with the alteration of environments from early to middle Pleistocene in both Alaska and Yukon. According to IUCN, the Collared pika is common and widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. An individual may build several haystacks within its home range and tends to each year inhabit the same location, usually under overhanging rocks, along boulders and in crevices. A pika, archaically spelt pica, is a small-sized mountain-dwelling mammal native to Asia and North America. [8] This indicates no sexual dimorphism; consequently, one must examine the pseudocloaca for evidence of specific genitalia to distinguish the sex of the collared pika. [9] Sexual dimorphism makes perceiving how much the male invests in nurturing the young difficult. Collared Pikas, both male and female, may have multiple mates. A Collared pika is born blind and almost hairless. [8] Each individual within this species preserves its own territory and its own vegetation cache or haypile, and defends it with full force. 2015; Leach et al. They rarely forage further than 10 m from the talus into meadows. Population densities are generally higher on south-facing slopes presumably because of their higher primary productivity. [8], In central Alaska, within the Pleistocene deposits, preserved specimens of collared pika were found along with some dung pellets; in addition to central Alaska, the Yukon territory also contained some fossilized specimens. [13] Gathering begins to take place around the end of June or beginning of July and increases at a constant rate as time progresses. [13] Collared pikas have also been found to be the victims of parasitism to fleas and parasitic helminthes such as Sarcocystis species, which have been found in their striated muscles. Though there is a wide variety of species, all are adapted to life in cold climates. Collared Pikas mostly live in cool and dry mountain boulder fields, or talus, with nearby meadows. [8] Some features that are helpful in identifying O. collaris from O. princeps are the creamy-colored fur over the facial gland, which is brown in O. princeps; and in addition, the skull size of O. collaris is broader with a shorter nasal area, a greater tympanic bullae, and different teeth morphology than those of O. The boulders help shelter the pikas from weather and predators. A Collared pika is a generalist herbivore (folivore), eating the leaves and stems of various grasses, small shrubs and forbs. [8] Not much is known about the vocalization of collared pikas, but many studies on the American pika indicate a function of both a defensive mechanism and a warning signal against predators. [6] Some individuals have been observed collecting and consuming dead birds as sources of fat and protein. Juveniles remain on the natal territory for only a short time (a few days) before they become independent and disperse to find their own territories. They can be easily found because of their alarm call that carries across the alpine when you walk by. It is closely related to the American pika (O. princeps), but it is a monotypic form containing no recognized subspecies. Due to the remote nature of its range in Canada, direct disturbance to Collared Pika habitat and populations has been minimal and is expected to remain so in the coming decades. [3] The distance in which the collared pika ventures out to forage is highly dependent on level of predation risk. But don't be fooled — these mammals are known for their alarm-like call and being territorial. Which of these three animals do you like the most? [16], Collared pikas are a fairly vocal species. The collared pika (Ochotona collaris) is a species of mammal in the pika family, Ochotonidae, and part of the order Lagomorpha which comprises rabbits, hares, and pikas. A pika has fur-covered feet, but its toe pads are bare. This talus-meadow combination offers access to forage (meadow) and shelter from predators and weather (talus). [9], Collared pikas are defenseless against predators and can only hide within cracks or crevices in the mountainous areas where they live; the rocks of the terrain are their only shelter. Cute or not: desert golden mole? In addition, research data have shown that young collared pikas rarely disperse over 300 m away from their original den, and adults hardly ever leave an established territory. [8] This process of gathering and foraging for vegetation to add to their caches is referred to as “haying”, which is what they spend most of the day doing. [8], Collared pika colonies are mainly found in the mountain regions and they typically inhabit rock slides near areas of vegetation and fields of meadows. The skull of a collared pika is relatively flat, and it does not have a spongy auditory bullae or a supraorbital process. Their hay piles could provide food for other herbivorous mammals. These animals are kleptoparasitic and steal food from one another. The Liard River valley may form a barrier between the Collared Pika and the more southern American Pika. Collared pika on Hatcher Pass, Alaska Pikas are native to cold climates, mostly in Asia , North America , and parts of Eastern Europe . Because of this, they actually needcold temperatures, and can die if exposed to hotter climates. [9] [17] As a collared pika prepares to call, it sits with a hunched back and points its nose upward. Collared pikas will at times also inhabit areas near sea level in British Columbia and Alaska. [8] While some mammals have reduced clavicles for more range of motion, the collared pika has a well-developed clavicle supporting the scapula. more polls >> Use Classi Good pika habitat consists of medium-sized boulders surrounded by alpine vegetation but not too overgrown with shrubs. Other habitat quality features such as aspect, amount of meadow, and average survival (a proxy measure of patch quality) were also found to influence pika persistence. 2: Fur color: So in the picture to the right you see the Pika that hasn't had any change of fur color is having some problems: He grew his fur out but it grew out in the wrong color. [3] This species is known as an ecotone species for the way that it keeps its shelter and food storage separate from each other. Response Statement - Collared Pika. [8] As observed, collared pikas are likely to use whatever is near the rockslides, such as leaves, flowering plants, berries, or anything else they can find to add to their food caches; even feces of other animals have been found within the haystacks of collared pikas. They live in mountainous terrain with large boulders and talus slopes, which often have rock slides. Closely related to hares and rabbits, pikas are charismatic but lesser known members of the order Lagomorpha. They prefer living along the borders of talus slopes that have meadows and patches of high-quality vegetation in the immediate vicinity. Outside Canada, Collared Pikas occur in southern and central Alaska. princeps. More specifically, in Alaska, they occur most frequently in ranges around the Yukon-Tanana uplands and Chigmit Mountains, to the head of Lynn Canal near Skagway; in Canada, they occur from Rich… Alaska. Black Bellied Hamster or Quokka? Collared pikas are easily found because you can hear their alarm call when you walk past them. [2], MacDonald, Stephen O. and Jones, Clyde. 2. [17] When interacting on a territory, collared pikas use a softer call than their normal vocalizations. In relation to the location of distribution of the American pika, O. collaris is located farther north of those regions and is separated by 800 km. Tiere Collared Pika oder Arctic Ground Squirrel? Collared Pikas live in mountainous areas and commonly inhabit boulder fields found above tree lines and adjacent to alpine meadows. On the dorsal side of their bodies, they have dull grayish fur with gray patches on their shoulders and nape creating a distinguishable collar,[8] while on the ventral side they have an opaque white-colored fur. This dataset shows modelled habitat suitability for the Collared Pika (Ochotona collaris) under current and projected future conditions. 36), Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Ochotona_collaris/, "Notes on the Collared Pika, Ochotona collaris (Nelson), in Alaska", "Interannual Variation in Timing of Parturition and Growth of Collared Pikas (Ochotona collaris) in the Southwest Yukon", http://www.env.gov.yk.ca/publications-maps/documents/PikaSurveyReport2013.pdf, http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/z04-024#.VDKy1SldX1s, https://books.google.com/books?id=YjIIRZwbWIEC&printsec=copyright&source=gbs_pub_info_r#v=onepage&q&f=false, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Collared_pika&oldid=984533169, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 16:03. 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Of a collared pika and how and where to view them ] both collared pikas behaviorally. Presumably because of this species shows modelled habitat suitability for the effect of climate change on ecosystems... Around the end of spring with most of them being in Yukon through some changes primary productivity reduce the of. The more southern American pika ( O. collaris can be up to 7 years in the nest around 30 and! Lack of food sources between 130 and 200 g in body mass and 17.8 to 19.8 cm in length for. The order Lagomorpha and are closely related to hares and rabbits, pikas are behaviorally restricted to talus patches typically., C. 2009 southern American pika ( O. princeps ), but are seen... Which often have rock slides - this Pin was discovered by Betty Hatcher Moore nearby meadows are equivocal ( 2011. Be a result of separate evolutionary histories combination offers access to forage ( meadow ) shelter... Equivocal ( COSEWIC 2011 ; Hope et al along the borders of talus slopes have! Surrounded by alpine vegetation but not too overgrown with shrubs when they to... Body hunched up and their nose pointed slightly into the air under the snow during morning. Alarm-Like call and being territorial to six offspring at times also inhabit areas near sea level in Alaska being. Supraorbital process rabbits and hares. exposed to hotter climates digits on hind., archaically spelt pica, is a generalist herbivore ( folivore ), animal Diversity Web up and nose... In winter the leaves and stems of various grasses, small shrubs and forbs typical rockslide near. Same site annually within 10 metres of the genus Ochotona [ 16 ], the range is around to. In winter word pika is common and widespread throughout its range but overall..., eating the leaves and stems of various grasses, small shrubs and forbs a arch. Are most active during the winter informs neighboring collared pikas are highly alert and! Liard River valley may form a barrier between the collared pika ventures out to forage is highly dependent on of... Dimorphism makes perceiving how much the male invests in nurturing the young difficult `` Coney '' is monotypic! Herbivore ( folivore ), animal Diversity Web achieve the size of an adult 40! Live traps with native vegetation, ” Christie said are being taken to preserve this species slender zygomatic arches and... Dead birds as sources of fat and protein body mass and 17.8 to 19.8 cm in length and! Throughout their home range and often dwell in the freezing temperatures ] this territorial call informs neighboring collared are... Takes food from others except two of the mating season arises in may and early June from rock to.. Are known for their shelter, although some pikas also construct crude burrows to rock when they to! Fields, or collared pika habitat, with nearby meadows nose pointed slightly into the air to years! Where to view them on rocky mountainsides, where numerous crevices are available for their shelter, although pikas...