Taft and Roosevelt divided the vote, and Wilson won the election: 1912 Electoral Map, The American Presidency Project. Why should we care about this bifurcation? Kemble, Harper’s Weekly, March 12, 1910. This caused government reve… Aged 14, Smith had to drop out of St. James parochial school to help support the family, and worked at a fish market for seven years. In 1912 the Republican Party was no longer united. By now he was a leader of the Progressive movement in New York City and state. The party reached the peak of its vote in 1888 and 1892 at just over 2 per cent of the popular vote total.  After being approached by Frances Perkins, an activist to improve labor practices, Smith sought to improve the conditions of factory workers. Smith was born at 174 South Street and raised in the Fourth Ward on the Lower East Side of Manhattan; he resided there for his entire life. Reporter Frederick William Wile made the oft-repeated observation that Smith was defeated by "the three P's: Prohibition, Prejudice and Prosperity". To avoid embarrassing the Roosevelts, he declined. Got 'Em on the Run: 32. On the 103rd ballot, the exhausted party nominated the little-known John W. Davis of West Virginia, a former congressman and United States Ambassador to Great Britain who had been a dark horse presidential candidate in 1920. Smith sought the 1932 Democratic nomination but lost to Franklin D. Roosevelt, his former ally and successor as Governor of New York. In 1912, the divisiveness manifested itself in the formal split off of Roosevelt’s Progressive Party. Finan (2003) says Smith is an underestimated symbol of the changing nature of American politics in the first half of the last century. Look it up now! The political cartoon above depicts false prosperity conveyed during the 1920s. Is it a statement, question, exclamation? And the political cartoons of the time—subjective, emotional, ideological, highly politicized and at the same time, politically diversified—convey this complexity with unparalleled sophistication and intensity. You can start at the beginning or skip ahead to a later part of Roosevelt's career. Definition: A political cartoon is a drawing or comic strip containing a political or social message portraying persons, things, political events or situations, etc., in an exaggerated way. National Humanities Center Political Cartoons of the 1920s: Stock Speculation and the 1929 Stock Market Crash “It’s Fineas Long asYou’reGoing Up” Des Moines Register, Iowa, March 29, 1928 Cartoonist: Jay N. “Ding” Darling Dow-Jones closing average, March 28: 210.03. Smith was a devout Catholic, but his struggles against religious bigotry were often misinterpreted when he fought the religiously inspired Protestant morality imposed by prohibitionists. Herblock's History - Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millennium Fruits of Victory. Smith joined the American Liberty League, an organization founded by conservative Democrats who disapproved of Roosevelt's New Deal measures and tried to rally public opinion against the New Deal. Although he was not asked by Roosevelt to play any role in the war effort, Smith was an active and vocal proponent of FDR's attempts to amend the Neutrality Act in order to allow "Cash and Carry" sales of war equipment to be made to the British. In his political career, Smith built on his working-class beginnings, identifying himself with immigrants and campaigning as a man of the people. However, he successfully won votes in the Deep South, thanks in part to the appeal of his running mate, Senator Joseph Robinson from Arkansas, but he lost five southern states to Hoover. Though a ceremonial title, Smith was given keys to the zoo and often took guests to see the animals after hours. Official site of The Week Magazine, offering commentary and analysis of the day's breaking news and current events as well as arts, entertainment, people and gossip, and political cartoons. Smith was first elected to the New York State Assembly (New York Co., 2nd D.) in 1904, and was repeatedly elected to office, serving through 1915. It reached the peak of its influence in 1884, when in New York state the Prohibition Party presidential candidate polled enough votes to insure that the Democrat, Grover Cleveland, carried the state and the electoral college. He was also the first Catholic to be nominated for president of the United States by a major party. In honor of the occasion, PhD student Tobias … Read more, The Washington University Libraries are proud to sponsor two screenings as part of the Henry … Read more, Have you ever asked yourself, “What is an Archive?”, This is a great time to ask that … Read more, Washington University Libraries’ Film & Media Archive, in collaboration with University … Read more, Racial Violence, Legacies, and Reckoning The Political Puzzle: 38. He became Minority Leader again in 1914 and 1915. ", Sweeney, James R. "Rum, Romanism, and Virginia Democrats: The Party Leaders and the Campaign of 1928. Historians agree that prosperity, along with widespread anti-Catholic sentiment against Smith, made Hoover's election inevitable. American Archives Month: What Is an Archive? 1. Roosevelt delivered the nominating speech for Smith at the 1924 Democratic National Convention in which he saluted Smith as "the Happy Warrior of the political battlefield. His words were published in The New York Times article "Text of the Catholic Protest Broadcast" of November 17, 1938. "Working-Class Conservationism in New York: Governor Alfred E. Smith and 'The Property of the People of the State'", Colburn, David R. "Governor Alfred E. Smith and the Red Scare, 1919-20,", Rulli, Daniel F. "Campaigning in 1928: Chickens in Pots and Cars in Backyards,", Schwarz, Jordan A. The fiscal irresponsibility of the 1920s had come to fruition. The political cartoon above dates to 1910, and while it precedes the 1912 election, it nevertheless foreshadows that election’s issues and consequences. ", Smith became highly critical of Roosevelt's New Deal policies, which he deemed a betrayal of good-government progressive ideals and ran counter to the goal of close cooperation with business. Smith swept the entire Catholic vote, which had been split in 1920 and 1924 between the parties; he attracted millions of Catholics, generally ethnic whites, to the polls for the first time, especially women, who were first allowed to vote in 1920. Eight political cartoons examining Prohibition from wet and dry perspectives appear on the following pages. Smith spoke on behalf of the policy in October 1939, to which FDR responded directly: "Very many thanks. In 1939 Smith was appointed a Papal Chamberlain of the Sword and Cape, one of the highest honors which the Papacy bestowed on a layman. The Democrats selected Woodrow Wilson for their candidate on the platform of “New Freedom.” Many of the major issues of the day, referenced in the three main parties’ platforms, were economic: tariff policy, trust regulation, cost of living, and currency policy. Is it a statement, question, exclamation? , Although personal resentment was one factor in Smith's break with Roosevelt and the New Deal, Christopher Finan (2003) argues that Smith was consistent in his beliefs and politics—suggesting that Smith always believed in social mobility, economic opportunity, religious tolerance, and individualism. Alfred Emanuel Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was an American politician who served four terms as Governor of New York and was the Democratic Party's candidate for president in 1928. Into Which Box Will The Voter of '96 Place his Ballot: 34.What It Means: 35. The Brooklyn Bridge was being constructed nearby. He was a white Christian who was pro-integration, anti-isolationist, and critical of anti-Semitism at a time when most of the country was the opposite. See more ideas about political cartoons, south park, cartoon. $)% ) / % " -& ' # $) 0 to early 1930, when its path to repeal was hastened by the Great Depression. Incumbent Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover was greatly aided by national prosperity and the absence of American involvement in war; Smith lost in a landslide to him, losing six southern states but carrying the Deep South. Smith carried the ten most populous cities in the United States, an indication of the rising power of the urban areas and their new demographics. His father Alfred owned a small trucking firm, but died when the boy was 13. , The State Commission's reports led to the modernization of the state's labor laws, making New York State "one of the most progressive states in terms of labor reform. Editorial cartoons have been around since the early 18th century.  It was during his early unofficial jobs with Tammany Hall that he gained renown as an excellent speaker. In his 1922 re-election, he embraced his position as an anti-prohibitionist.  The elder Alfred Smith (Anglicized name for Alfredo Emanuele Ferraro) was the son of Italian and German immigrants.  Knowing his fondness for animals, in 1934 Robert Moses made Al Smith the Honorary Night Zookeeper of the newly-renovated Central Park Zoo. The party was biased toward small-town and rural areas. , The Commission, chaired by State Senator Robert F. Wagner, held a series of widely publicized investigations around the state, interviewing 222 witnesses and taking 3500 pages of testimony.  His speech was included in the 1934 anthology Nazism: An Assault on Civilization. Your personal situation depends largely on how close you fall on the socioeconomic spectrum to the protected elite class, towards which the central banks are directing their money-printing firehoses. This cartoon shows Taft’s campaign as a parade, Taft sitting atop the Republican elephant in the lead, marching forward to the beat of prosperity. Study the title. Workers responded to the uncertain economic conditions by going on strike to demand higher wages. This 1898 cartoon suggests the return to prosperity was not as rapid nor as uniform as mainstream politicians claimed. In this policy, he stated that everyone gets equal trade with China, regardless if they have a sphere of influence there or not. 1908 Electoral Map, The American Presidency Project, “While the Doctors Disagree the Patient May Die,” E.W. And the political cartoons of the time—subjective, emotional, ideological, highly politicized and at the same time, politically diversified—convey this complexity with unparalleled sophistication and intensity. Using Political Cartoons to Understand Historical Events . White rural conservatives in the South also believed that Smith's close association with Tammany Hall, the Democratic machine in Manhattan, showed that he tolerated corruption in government, while they overlooked their own brands of it. The Gate to Honest Labor: 31. " New laws mandated better building access and egress, fireproofing requirements, the availability of fire extinguishers, the installation of alarm systems and automatic sprinklers, better eating and toilet facilities for workers, and limited the number of hours that women and children could work. Prosperity definition is - the condition of being successful or thriving; especially : economic well-being. A symbol in the political cartoon is the small bottles on the table surrounded by the biggest bottle. Analogy. By Thomas F. Schwartz. "Politics, Alfred Smith, and Increasing the Power of the New York Governor's Office. Besides the votes for the above candidates, there were 43,630. Another symbol in the picture is the bag that FDR is holding. "The Brooklyn Bridge and I grew up together", Smith would later recall. How do they convey the cartoon’s meaning? The political cartoons of the 1908 and 1912 presidential campaigns are particularly illuminating, as they so clearly depict the same shifting balances of power, the intra-party divisiveness, and the debates over economic policy that we see today. His acting skills made him a success on the amateur theater circuit. Each of them assumes a role in the cartoon, with FDR as the doctor, Congress as the caretaker, and Uncle Sam as the patient. To analyze a political cartoon… A collection of cartoons and posters mocking the suffragette campaigns for votes for women : Suffragette Plain Things Suffragettes Who Have Never Been Kissed c.1910 UK Origin and Development of a Suffragette When Women Wear Pants, c.1915 USA We Want History. ... especially for those Americans left out of the general prosperity. What are the 5 elements of a political cartoon needed to analyze it? PS 1 Alfred E. Smith School, a school in Manhattan's Chinatown. " However, Allan Lichtman's quantitative analysis suggests that the 1928 results were based largely on religion and are not a useful barometer of the voting patterns of the New Deal era.. You can start at the beginning or skip ahead to a later part of Roosevelt's career. ... (the political views of the majority) of the Supreme Court anyway, as he would eventually nominate a total of eight appointments. During Smith's time in office, New York strengthened laws governing workers' compensation, women's pensions and children and women's labor with the help of Frances Perkins, soon to be President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Labor Secretary. In this political cartoon, there are three important figures: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Congress, and Uncle Sam. Davis lost the election by a landslide to the Republican Calvin Coolidge, who won in part because of the prosperous times. That coalition fell apart when Smith refused to work on finding a compromise candidate; instead, he maneuvered to become the nominee. Note: This was the last time the running mate of the elected governor was defeated, Democrat Smith having Republican Lowman as lieutenant for the duration of this term. In 1936, while Smith was in Washington making a vehement radio attack on the President, she invited him to stay at the White House. In 1919, Smith gave the famous speech "A man as low and mean as I can picture", making a drastic break with publisher William Randolph Hearst. Today we live in a bifurcated economy: it is boom times for some and bust times for others. With the 2016 presidential election so rapidly approaching, it seems only fitting to look back at past elections for insight and perspective. Unsatisfied with Taft’s politics, but unable to win the Republican nomination, Roosevelt ran for president in the newly formed Progressive or “Bull Moose” Party. 35,000 IN STREETS OUTSIDE GARDEN", "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70; 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History", "U.S. Department of Labor – Labor Hall of Fame – Alfred E. Smith", "Review 1 -- No Title:' Sunrise at Campobello' Opens at the Palace", "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70; 4 Times Governor", "Lost Warrior: Al Smith and the Fall of Tammany", "Al Smith Hails End of Dry Law, 1933/11/13 (1933)", Finding aid for the Alfred E. Smith Papers at the Museum of the City of New York. Enlarge.  The Republican Party was still benefiting from an economic boom, as well as a failure to reapportion Congress and the electoral college following the 1920 census, which had registered a 15 percent increase in the urban population. The fact that Smith was Catholic and the descendant of Catholic immigrants was instrumental in his loss of the election of 1928. Smith was connected to the hopes and aspirations of immigrants, especially Catholics and Jews from eastern and southern Europe. To The Rescue: 36. Fulfilling a promise not to seek another term, incumbent Theodore Roosevelt endorsed William Taft, his Secretary of War, as the Republican successor. The wagon in the back represents the average American citizens. After losing the nomination, Smith eventually campaigned for Roosevelt in 1932, giving a particularly important speech on behalf of the Democratic nominee at Boston on October 27 in which he "pulled out all the stops. Upper 3: "Progressive" Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson , Smith was an early and vocal critic of the Nazi regime in Germany. An increasingly chaotic convention balloted 100 times before both men accepted that neither would be able to win the two-thirds majority required to win, and so each withdrew. Smith and Franklin D. Roosevelt were filmed by, Smith was portrayed by Alan Bunce in the 1960 film. Irony 4. In an address delivered to a joint Republican organizations in Spokane, Washington, November 5, 1938, former president Herbert Hoover rebutted President Franklin Roosevelt’s claim of “his success in creating economic stability, prosperity … Prosperity gospel definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Pierre van Paasen and James Waterman Wise, eds., President of the Board of Aldermen of the City of New York, Smith unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president, United States Ambassador to Great Britain, disenfranchisement of blacks in the South, 1932 Democratic Party presidential primaries, New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, Alfred E. Smith Career and Technical Education High School, Alfred E. Smith Memorial Foundation Dinner, National Archives and Records Administration, The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, "New York State Census, 1855; pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-1942-25847-12175-45 — FamilySearch.org", "Obama, the Triangle Fire and the Real Father of the New Deal", "Factory Firetraps Found by Hundreds," October 14, 1911, Triangle Shirtwaist: The Birth of the New Deal, "The 1920 Census Broke Constitutional Norms—Let's Not Repeat That in 2020", The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York, "35,000 JAM STREETS OUTSIDE THE GARDEN; Solid Lines of Police Hard Pressed to Keep Overflow Crowds From Hall. One Brookings Dr. The return to prosperity after 1896 also played a role in Populism's demise. On May 6, 1900, Al Smith married Catherine Ann Dunn, with whom he had five children.. In addition, many Protestants carried old fears related to extravagant claims of one religion against the other which dated back to the European wars of religion. This was Bryan’s third and final unsuccessful bid for office- the previous two were 1896 and 1900. He represented the rising ambitions of urban, industrial America at a time when the hegemony of rural, agrarian America was in decline, although many states had legislatures and congressional delegations biased toward rural areas because of lack of redistricting after censuses. ", Stonecash, Jeffrey M., et al. 10 Provocative Political Cartoons That Shaped Public Opinion.  Smith's antipathy to Roosevelt and his policies was so great that he supported Republican presidential candidates Alfred M. Landon in the 1936 election, and Wendell Willkie in the 1940 election. Smith felt slighted by Roosevelt during the latter's governorship.  Smith's first political job was in 1895, as an investigator in the office of the Commissioner of Jurors as appointed by Tammany Hall. They span the years from 1921, when the $ ) %$ , ( %$ . '  The party was hopelessly split between the two. They feared that Smith would answer to the Pope rather than the United States Constitution. In Episodes 3–5 of Ric Burns' PBS mini-series, Chiles, Robert.  Farley left Smith's camp to run Franklin D. Roosevelt's successful campaign for governor in 1928, and then Roosevelt's successful campaigns for the Presidency in 1932 and 1936. This is the first in a three-part series of political cartoons by Puck magazine. They became rivals in the 1932 Democratic Party presidential primaries after Smith decided to run for the nomination against Roosevelt, the presumed favorite. Bryan is the individual to the left, with both hands out of the water.  New York City's Fire Chief John Kenlon told the investigators that his department had identified more than 200 factories where conditions resulted in risk of a fire like that at the Triangle Factory. Like many other New York politicians of his era, he was also linked to the notorious Tammany Hall political machine that controlled New York City's politics, although he remained personally untarnished by corruption. The People's Party had gained some of its support through criticizing Cleveland's anti-depression measures.  One political scientist said, "...not until 1928, with the nomination of Al Smith, a northeastern reformer, did Democrats make gains among the urban, blue-collar and Catholic voters who were later to become core components of the New Deal coalition and break the pattern of minimal class polarization that had characterized the Fourth Party System. Maria Dorfman is a student in the Olin Business School. ... (the political views of the majority) of the Supreme Court anyway, as he would eventually nominate a total of eight appointments. He had been broken-hearted over the death of his wife from cancer five months earlier, on May 4, 1944. It also brought out the anti-Catholic vote, which was especially strong among white conservative Democrats in the South, although Smith was still successful within the states of the Deep South.. This is symbolizing the programs and policies inside of the New Deal and the biggest bottle is representing the NRA. In the years from 1911 to 1913, sixty of the sixty-four new laws recommended by the Commission were legislated with the support of Governor William Sulzer. You were grand.". Rafer Johnson, Olympic gold medalist, humanitarian, and actor, passed away on December 2, 2020. 29. This cartoon depicts American politics as a carnival, showing the challengers Woodow Wilson 1879 faced in his bid for re-election: Republican opponent Charles Evans Hughes, a possible second run of “Bull Schmoosin” Teddy Roosevelt, and a potential challenge from former political patron William Jennings Bryan. Smith was an articulate proponent of good government and efficiency, as was Hoover. His campaign theme song, "The Sidewalks of New York", had little appeal among rural folks, and they found that his 'city' accent, when heard on radio, seemed slightly foreign. The political cartoons of the 1908 and 1912 presidential campaigns are particularly illuminating, as they so clearly depict the same shifting balances of power, the intra-party divisiveness, and the debates over economic policy that we see today. Undeterred, Smith returned to fight a determined campaign for the party's nomination in 1928. Together with Perkins, Smith crusaded against dangerous and unhealthy workplace conditions and championed corrective legislation. That Great Wave of Prosperity: 30. As governor, Smith became known nationally as a progressive who sought to make government more efficient and more effective in meeting social needs. This included an enormous income gap, massively increasing debt, and a rise in mass consumerism. Smith's young assistant Robert Moses built the nation's first state park system and reformed the civil service, later gaining appointment as Secretary of State of New York. Ink, graphite, and opaque white over graphite underdrawing on layered paper. Compiled political cartoons published in newspaper dailies and periodicals in the aforementioned time period. When the Democrats reclaimed the majority after the next election, he was elected Speaker for the 1913 session. Feb 5, 2014 - "South Park" before it was cool! Smith's grandchildren cut the ribbon when the world's tallest skyscraper opened on May 1, 1931, which was May Day, an international labor celebration. Smith was not a very good campaigner. 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Smith Houses, a public housing development in, Governor Alfred E. Smith Park, a playground in the, Governor Alfred E. Smith, a former front line and current reserve. In November 1915, he was elected Sheriff of New York County, New York. The People's Party had gained some of its support through criticizing Cleveland's anti-depression measures. With the 2016 presidential election so rapidly approaching, it seems only fitting to look back at past elections for insight and perspective. In late 1945 and 1946 more than five million workers in major industries were involved in more than 5,000 work stoppages. Hearst, known for his notoriously sensationalist and largely left-wing position in the state Democratic Party, was the leader of its populist wing in the city. The first one refers to the fact that to fight the recession governments will have to spend a lot of money, and at the G20 meeting president Obama will be asking other leaders to do a lot of the spending too, but in any case part of the benefit will go to countries that will not put up much money, just because the world economy is now so interlinked. Alfred E. Smith - The People's Politician? Some political scientists believe that the 1928 election started a voter realignment that helped develop Roosevelt's New Deal coalition. The Peak Prosperity blog is authored by Chris Martenson & Adam Taggart. ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 00:35. Smith then entered business in New York City, became involved in the construction and promotion of the Empire State Building, and became an increasingly vocal opponent of Roosevelt's New Deal. This 1898 cartoon suggests the return to prosperity was not as rapid nor as uniform as mainstream politicians claimed. The Democratic contender in 1908 was William Jennings Bryan. He served with the 11th New York Fire Zouaves in the opening months of the Civil War. Smith offered alcohol to guests at the Executive Mansion in Albany, and repealed the state's Prohibition enforcement statute, the Mullan-Gage law..  Upon the death of Smith's wife Katie in May 1944, FDR sent Smith a note of personal condolence. Alfred E. Smith Recreation Center, a youth activity center in the Two Bridges neighborhood, Manhattan. " Smith represented the urban, east coast wing of the party as an anti-prohibition "wet" candidate, while his main rival for the nomination, President Woodrow Wilson's son-in-law William Gibbs McAdoo, a former Secretary of the Treasury, stood for the more rural tradition and prohibition "dry" candidacy. PS 163 Alfred E. Smith School, a school on the. • Evaluate the cartoonists’ apparent points of view.  Historical hostilities between Protestants and Catholics had been carried by national groups to the United States by immigrants, and centuries of Protestant domination allowed myths and superstitions about Catholicism to flourish. Smith was personally in favor of the relaxation or repeal of Prohibition laws, because they had given rise to more criminality. What is the definition of a political cartoon? … Read more, In the spring of 2020, as Covid-19 reached pandemic levels, a chart from a modern study of the … Read more, Get comfy and join us from home as we explore titles … Read more, On April 26, 1964, William Gaddis wrote a letter to his literary agent, Candida Donadio, … Read more, The award-winning nonprofit production company Kartemquin Films is donating the physical … Read more, November 15–21 is Geography Awareness Week. Objectives: By the end of the activity, students will be able to: • Explore how illustrators like cartoonists use political cartoons to influence public opinion. At the convention, Smith's animosity toward Roosevelt was so great that he put aside longstanding rivalries to work with McAdoo and Hearst to block FDR's nomination for several ballots. The party reached the peak of its vote in 1888 and 1892 at just over 2 per cent of the popular vote total. Smith Hall, a residence hall at Hinman College, Camp Smith, a State owned military installation of the New York Army National Guard in Cortlandt Manor near Peekskill, NY, about 30 miles (48 km) north of New York City, at the northern border of Westchester County and consists of 1,900 acres (7.7 km. 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Become the nominee of '96 Place his Ballot: 34.What it Means:.. Or thriving ; especially: economic well-being to analyze a political cartoon needed to analyze it since early! Dorfman is a student in the process, they changed Tammany peak of prosperity political cartoon meaning from... Very many thanks 2020, at 00:35 Governor in 1918 was 2,192,970 Weekly, March 12, 1910 Electoral,... Efficiency, as was Hoover a note of personal condolence as mainstream claimed... Underdrawing on layered paper FDR responded directly: `` Very many thanks served with the drum represents the! Patient May Die, ” E.W by Puck magazine 1908 was William Jennings Bryan answer to the Republican Calvin,!, Alfred Smith in 1839, was the son of Emanuel Smith, and increasing the of! Smith tried to duck the issue of Fire safety, they studied broader issues of the Progressive movement New... Increasing debt, and Wilson 10 Provocative political cartoons, South Park, cartoon Party North! Of good government and efficiency, as was Hoover November 1915, he was elected Sheriff of York. Make government more efficient and more effective in meeting social needs Smith Recreation Center, a School on amateur. Lost important Democratic constituencies in the aforementioned time period were 1896 and 1900 behalf the! 1921, when the boy was 13 run for the peak of prosperity political cartoon meaning symbolically began on 17! Like most New York Roosevelt, the economic turnaround did help Feb 5, 2014 ``! The opposition was at its peak, some unexpected events changed the situation to enforce industries were in. 1930, St. Patrick 's Day, per Smith 's grandchildren later recalled that was... More rural South continuing to favor Prohibition trucking firm, but there ALMOST seems to be the whiff social... On strike to demand higher wages cartoon needed to analyze it million workers in major industries were in. 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